Northwest Fisheries Science Center

Southern Resident Killer Whale Research Publications

Genetics

Ford, M. J., M. B. Hanson, J. Hempelmann, K. L. Ayres, C. K. Emmons, G. S. Schorr, R. W. Baird, K. C. Balcomb, S. K. Wasser, K. M. Parsons, K. Balcomb-Bartok. 2011. Inferred Paternity and Male Reproductive Success in a Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) Population. Journal of Heredity 102(5): 537-553.

Hoelzel, R. 2004. Report on killer whale population genetics for the BRT review on the status of the southern resident population. Unpubl. report submitted to the NWFSC, Seattle, WA.

Hoelzel, A.R., Hey, J., Dahlheim, M.E., Nicholson, C., Burkanov, V. and Black, N. 2007. Evolution of population structure in a highly social top predator, the killer whale. Molecular Biology and Evolution 24: 1407-1415.

Morin, P.A., LeDuc, R.G., Robertson, K.M., Hedrick, N.M., Perrin, W.F., Etnier, M., Wade, P., and Taylor, B.L. 2006. Genetic Analysis of killer whale (Orcinus orca) historical bone and tooth samples to identify western U.S. ecotypes. Marine Mammal Science 22(4): 897–909.

Morin, P.A, Archer, F.I., Foote, A.D., Vilstrup, J., Allen, E.E., Wade, P., Durban, J., Parsons, K., Pitman, R., Li, L., Bouffard, P., Abel Nielsen, S.C., Rasmussen, M., Willerslev, E., Gilbert, M.T., and Harkins, T. 2010. Genome Research 20:908-916.

Reeves, R.R., W.F. Perrin, B.L. Taylor, C.S. Baker and M.L. Mesnick (eds.). 2004. The next link/button will exit from NWFSC web site Report of the Workshop on Shortcomings of Cetacean Taxonomy in Relation to Needs of Conservation and Management, 30 April to 2 May, La Jolla, California. NOAA-Technical Memorandum-NMFS-SWFSC-363, 94pp.

Population Dynamics

Parsons, K.M., Balcomb, K.C., Ford, J.K.B., and Durban, J.W. 2009. The social dynamics of the Southern Resident killer whales and conservation implications for the conservation of this endangered population. Animal Behaviour 77:963-971.

Ward, E.J., E.E. Holmes, and K.C. Balcomb. 2009. The next link/button will exit from NWFSC web site Quantifying the effects of prey abundance on killer whale reproduction. Journal of Applied Ecology, 46(3):632-640.

Ward, E.J., E.E. Holmes, K. Parsons, KC Balcomb, and JKB Ford. 2009. The next link/button will exit from NWFSC web site The role of menopause and reproductive senescence in a long-lived social mammal. Frontiers in Zoology, 6(4).

Ward, E.J., Semmens, B.X., Holmes, E.E., and Balcomb, K.C. 2011. Effects of multiple levels of social organization on survival and abundance. Conservation Biology 25: 350-355.

Contaminants and Health

Ayres, K. L., R. K. Booth, J. Hempelmann, K. Koski, C. K. Emmons, R. W. Baird, K. Balcomb-Bartok, M. B. Hanson, M. J. Ford, S. K. Wasser. 2012. Distinguishing the Impacts of inadequate Prey and Vessel Traffic on an Endangered Killer Whale (orcinus orca) Populations. PLoS ONE.

Fearnbach, H., Durban, J., Ellifrit, D., and Balcomb, K. 2011. Size and long-term growth trends of endangered fish-eating killer whales. Endangered Species Research 13:173-180.

Krahn, Margaret M, M. Bradley Hanson, Gregory S. Schorr, Candice K. Emmons, Douglas G. Burrows, Jennie L. Bolton, Robin W. Baird, Gina M. Ylitalo. 2009. The next link/button will exit from NWFSC web site Effects of age, sex and reproductive status on persistent organic pollutant concentrations in "Southern Resident" killer whales. Marine Pollution Bulletin 58: 1522–1529.

Herman, David P, Gina M.Ylitalo, Craig O. Matkin, John W. Durban, M. Bradley Hanson, Marilyn E. Dahlheim, Janice M. Straley, Karen L. Tilbury, Margaret M. Krahn. 2008. The next link/button will exit from NWFSC web site Assessing the age-distributions of killer whale (Orcinus orca) populations from the composition of endogenous fatty acids in their outer-blubber layers. Mar. Eco. Prog. Ser. 372: 289–302.

Krahn,, M.M., M.B. Hanson, R.W. Baird, R.H. Boyer, D.G. Burrows, C.K. Emmons, J. K.B. Ford, L. L. Jones, D. P. Noren, P. S. Ross, G. S. Schorr, T.K. Collier. 2007. The next link/button will exit from NWFSC web site Persistent organic pollutants and stable isotopes in biopsy samples (2004/2006) from Southern Resident killer whales. Mar. Poll. Bull. 54 (2007) 1903–1911.

Mongillo, T.M. 2010. Estimated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) accumulation in South-ern Resident killer whales. University of Washington.

Mongillo TM, Holmes EE, Noren DP, VanBlaricom GR and others (2012) Predicted polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) accumulation in Southern Resident killer whales. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 453:263-277

Noren, D. P., J. A. Mocklin. 2011. Review of cetcean biopsy techniques: factors contributing to successful sample collection and physiological and behavioral impacts. Marine Mammal Science, 28(1):154-199. doi:DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2011.00469.x

Raverty, S. and J. Gaydos. 2004. Killer whale necropsy and disease testing protocol.

Diet and Prey Availability

Au, W. Au, W. W. L., Horne, J. and Jones, C. (2010). Basis of acoustic discrimination of Chinook salmon from other salmons by echolocating Orcinus orca. J. Acoust. Soc. Am.

Baird, R. W., M. B. Hanson, L. M. Dill. 2005. Factors influencing the diving behaviour of fish-eating killer whales: sex differences and diel and interannual variation in diving rates. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 83:257-267.

Hanson, M.B., R.W. Baird, J.K.B. Ford, J. Hempelmann-Halos, D. M.Van Doornik, J.R. Candy, C. K. Emmons, G. S. Schorr, B. Gisborne, K. L. Ayres, S. K. Wasser, K. C. Balcomb, K. Balcomb-Bartok, J. G. Sneva, and M. J. Ford. 2010. The next link/button will exit from NWFSC web site Species and stock identification of prey consumed by endangered “southern resident” killer whales in their summer range. Endangered Species Research 11: 69–82.

Hilborn, R., S.P. Cox, F.M.D. Gulland, D.G. Hankin, N.T. Hobbs, D.E. Schindler, and A.W. Trites. 2012. The Effects of Salmon Fisheries on Southern Resident Killer Whales: Final Report of the Independent Science Panel.

Ward, E. J., M. J. Ford, R. G. Kope, J. K. Ford, A. Velez-Espino, C. K. Parken, L. LaVoy, M. B. Hanson, K. C. Balcomb. 2013. Estimating the impacts of Chinook salmon abundance and prey removal by ocean fishing on Southern Resident killer whale population dynamics. U.S. Dept. of Commerce, NOAA Tech. Memo., NMFS-NWFSC-123, 71 p.

Williams, T.M., Dunkin, R., Yochem, P., McBain, J., Fox-Dobbs, K., Mostman-Liwanag, H., Maresh, J. 2008. NWFSC Contract Report: Assessing Stable Isotope Signature Variation in Cetaceans: An evaluation of skin sampling techniques and correlations with diet for bottlenose dolphins and killer whales.

Energetics and Metabolic Costs

Williams, R. and Noren, D.P. (2009) The next link/button will exit from NWFSC web site Swimming speed, respiration rate and estimated cost of transport in adult killer whales. Marine Mammal Science 25: 327–350.

Noren, D.P. (2010) The next link/button will exit from NWFSC web site Estimated field metabolic rates and prey requirements of resident killer whales. Marine Mammal Science. 27:60–77

Williams, R., Krkošek, M., Ashe, E., Branch, T.A., Clark, S., Hammond, P.S., Hoyt, E., Noren, D.P., Rosen, D., Winship, A. 2011. Competing conservation objectives for predators and prey: estimating killer whale prey requirements for Chinook salmon. PLoS ONE 6(11): e26738. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0026738.

Distribution and Habitat

Hanson, M.B., D. P. Noren, T.F. Norris, C.A. Emmons, M. M. Holt, T. Guy, and J. Zamon. 2008. Pacific Ocean killer whale and other cetaceans Distribution survey, May 2007 (PODs 2007) conducted aboard the NOAA ship McArthur II. Unpubl. Rept, NWFSC, Seattle, WA.

Hanson, M.B., D. P. Noren, T.F. Norris, C.A. Emmons, M. M. Holt, E. Phillips, and J. Zamon. 2009. Pacific Orca Distribution Survey (PODS) conducted aboard the NOAA ship McArthur II in March 2008. (STATE DEPT. CRUISE NO:2008-019) Unpubl. Rept, NWFSC, Seattle, WA.

Hanson, M.B., D. P. Noren, T.F. Norris, C.A. Emmons, M. M. Holt, E. Phillips, J. Zamon, and J. Menkel. 2010. Pacific Orca Distribution Survey (PODS) conducted aboard the NOAA ship McArthur II in March-April 2009. (STATE DEPT. CRUISE NO:2009-002) Unpubl. Rept, NWFSC, Seattle, WA.

Hauser, D.D.W. 2006. Summer space use of Southern Resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) within Washington and British Columbia inshore waters. MS Thesis, University of Washington

Hauser, D.D.W., Logsdon, M.G., Holmes, E.E., VanBlaricom, G.R., and Osborne, R.W. 2007. Summer distribution patterns of Southern Resident killer whales (Orcinus orca): evidence of core areas and spatial segregation of social groups. Marine Ecology Progress Series 351: 301-310.

Hauser, D.D.W., VanBlaricom, G.R., Holmes, E.E., and Osborne, R.W. 2006. Evaluating the use of whalewatch data in determin-ing killer whale (Orcinus orca) distribution patterns. Journal of Cetacean Research & Management 8:273-281.

McCluskey SM (2006) Population trends and movement complexity patterns of southern resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) in relation to Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the inland waters of Washington State and British Columbia. M.Sc. Thesis, School of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, University of Washington

Hanson, M.B., D. P. Noren, T.F. Norris, C.A. Emmons, T. Guy and J. Zamon. 2008. Pacific Ocean killer whale and other marine mammals Distribution survey, March 2006 (PODs 2006) conducted aboard the NOAA ship McArthur II. Unpubl. Rept, NWFSC, Seattle, WA.

Hauser DDW (2006) Summer space use of Southern Resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) within Washington and British Columbia inshore waters. M.Sc. Thesis, School of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle WA.

Ashe, E., Noren, D.P., Williams, R. (2010) The next link/button will exit from NWFSC web site Animal behaviour and marine protected areas: Incorporating behavioural data into the selection of marine protected areas for an endangered killer whale population. Animal Conservation 13:196–203.

Hanson, M.B., Emmons, C.K., Ward, E.J., Nystuen, J.A., Lammers, M.O. (2013) Assessing the coastal occurrence of endangered killer whales using autonomous passive acoustic recorders. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 134: 3486-3495, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4821206.

Vessel Interactions

Bain, DE., J. Smith and R. Williams.2004. Contract Report for Land-based Southern Resident Killer Whale Vessel Interaction Study. Unpubl. Contract Rept, NWFSC, Seattle, WA.

Bain, DE., J. Smith and R. Williams. 2006. Effects Of Vessels On Behavior Of Southern Resident Killer Whales (Orcinus Spp.) Unpubl. Contract Rept, NWFSC, Seattle, WA.

Bain, DE., J. Smith and R. Williams. 2006. Effects Of Vessels On Behavior Of Southernresident Killer Whales (Orcinus Spp.) 2003-2005. Unpubl. Contract Rept, NWFSC, Seattle, WA.

Lusseau D, Bain DE, Williams R, Smith JC (2009) The next link/button will exit from NWFSC web site Vessel traffic disrupts the foraging behavior of southern resident killer whales Orcinus orca. Endangered Species Research 6:211–221.

Marsh, J.A. 2008. Social behavior and ecology of “Southern Resident” killer whales (Orcinus orca). University of Washington.

Noren D.P., R.C. Dunkin, T.M. Williams, and M.M. Holt. 2012. Energetic cost of behaviors performed in response to vessel disturbance: one link in the population consequences of acoustic disturbance model. In: Anthony Hawkins and Arthur N. Popper, Eds. The Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life, pp 427-430.

Noren, D.P., Johnson, A.H., Rehder, D., Larson, A. (2009) The next link/button will exit from NWFSC web site Close approaches by vessels elicit surface active behaviors by Southern Resident killer whales. Endangered Species Research 8:179–192.

Russell, S. and Schneidler, M. In press. The U.S. Whale Watching Industry of the Greater Puget Sound:# A Description and Baseline Analysis. U.S. Dept. of Comm., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-NWFSC-89, 59 p.

Williams, R. and Ashe, E. (2007) The next link/button will exit from NWFSC web site Killer whale evasive tactics vary with boat number. Journal of Zoology 272:390–397.

Williams, R., Bain, D.E., Smith, J.C., Lusseau, D. (2009) The next link/button will exit from NWFSC web site Effects of vessels on behaviour patterns of individual southern resident killer whales Orcinus orca. Endangered Species Research 6:199–209.

Noren D.P., Dunkin R.C., Williams T.M., Holt M.M. (2012) Energetic cost of behaviors performed in response to vessel disturbance: one link in the population consequences of acoustic disturbance model. In: Anthony Hawkins and Arthur N. Popper, Eds. The Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life, pages 427-430.

Noise Effects

Bassett, C., B. Polagye, M. M. Holt, J. Thomson. 2012. A vessel noise budget for Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound, WA (USA). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America.

CTC. 2005. Underwater Acoustic Habitat Technical Memorandum. Unpubl. rept submitted to NWFSC, Seattle, WA. Contract No. NBCHD020034 Task No. 0017 to Concurrent Technologies Corporation, Bremerton, WA.

Hildebrand, J.A., M.A. McDonald, J. Calambokidis, and K. Balcomb. 2006. Whale Watch Vessel Ambient Noise in the Haro Strait. Unpubl. rept., Joint Institute for Marine Observations, Report on cooperative agreement NA17RJ1231:MPL TM-490 August 2006. Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA

Holt, M.M. 2008. Sound exposure and Southern Resident killer whales (Orcinus orca): A review of current knowledge and data gaps. U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NWFSC-89, 59 p.

Holt, M. M., D. P. Noren, C. K. Emmons. 2011. Effects of noise levels and call types on the source levels of killer whale calls. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 130(5):3100-3106. doi:DOI: 10.1121/1.3641446

Holt, M. M., D.P. Noren, V. Veirs, C.K. Emmons, and S. Veirs. 2008. The next link/button will exit from NWFSC web site Speaking up: Killer whales (Orcinus orca) increase their call amplitude in response to vessel noise. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125 _1_, January 2009, JASA Express Letters

Jones, C.D., and M.A. Wolfson. 2006. Acoustic Environment of Haro Strait: Preliminary Propagation Modeling and Data Analysis. Unpubl. Technical Memorandum APL-UW TM 3-06, July 2006, for NOAA Contract AB133F-04-SE-1218. Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington Seattle, Washington.

Noren, D. P., M. M. Holt, R. C. Dunkin, T. M. Williams. 2013. The metabolic cost of communicative sound production in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Journal of Experimental Biology, 216:1624-1629

Veirs, V. and S. Veirs. 2006. Average levels and power spectra of ambient sound in the habitat of southern resident orcas. Unpubl. Rept. to the NWFSC, Seattle, WA.

Recovery

Krahn, M.M., P.R. Wade, S.T. Kalinowski, M.E. Dahlheim, B.L. Taylor, M.B. Hanson, G.M. Ylitalo, R.P. Angliss, J.E. Stein, and R.S. Waples. 2002. Status review of Southern Resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) under the Endangered Species Act. U.S. Dept. of Commerce, NOAA Technical Memorandum, NMFSNWFSC-54, 133 p.

Krahn, M.M., M.J. Ford, W.F. Perrin, P.R. Wade, R.P. Angliss, M.B. Hanson, B.L. Taylor, G.M. Ylitalo, M.E. Dahlheim, J.E. Stein, and R.S. Waples. 2004. 2004 status review of Southern Resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) under the Endangered Species Act. U.S. Dept. of Commerce, NOAA Technical Memorandum, NMFS-NWFSC-62, 73 p.

National Marine Fisheries Service. 2008. Recovery Plan for Southern Resident Killer Whales (Orcinus orca). National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Region, Seattle, Washington. National Marine Fisheries Service. 2010. Final Environmental Assessment for New Regulations to Protect Killer Whales from Vessel Effects in Inland Waters of Washington. National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Region, Seattle, Washington.

National Marine Fisheries Service. 2011. Southern Resident Killer Whales (Orcinus orca) 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. NMFS, Northwest Regional Office, Seattle, WA. National Marine Fisheries Service. 2013. Status Review Update of Southern Resident Killer Whales. NMFS, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, WA.