|Document Type:||Journal Article|
|Title:||Environmental contaminants and the prevalence of hemic neoplasia (leukemia) in the common mussel (Mytilus edulis complex) from Puget sound, Washington, USA|
|Author:||P. K. Krishnakumar, Edmundo Casillas, R. G. Snider, Anna N. Kagley, U. Varanasi|
|Journal:||Journal of Invertebrate Pathology|
The relationship between hemic neoplasia, a blood cell disorder in bivalve molluscs, and chemical contaminants was evaluated in the common mussel (Mytilus edulis complex). Hemic neoplasia (HN) is endemic to mussel populations in Puget Sound. The prevalence of hemic neoplasia ranged from 0 to 30% in mussels from nine sites in Puget Sound, Washington. Organic chemical contamination in sediment from these sites range from 0.1 to 64.0 ppm of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 0.07 to 0.50 ppm chlorinated hydrocarbons. No relationship between the body burden of environmental contaminants and the prevalence of HN in mussels was identified. To evaluate the short–term ability of chemical contaminants to induce HN in mussels, mussels, from a site where mussels were previously determined to be HN free, were fed microencapsulated PAHs (composed of a mixture of phenanthrene, flouranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene) or PCBs (Aroclor 1254) and the prevalence of HN was assessed after 30 days of exposure. Although an apparent increase in HN prevalence (20 to 30%) was observed in all treatments groups except the untreated controls, no significant difference in the prevalence of HN was observed between the control group of mussels fed corn oil (vehicle) and mussels fed either PAHs or PCBs in corn oil. A long-term (180–day) exposure study was conducted to evaluate the influence of PAHs or PCBs in modulating the prevalence of HN in a mussel population already exhibiting a moderate HN prevalence. Mussels, from a site where mussels were previously determined to exhibit a background prevalence of HN, fed microencapsulated PAHs, PCBs, and corn oil (vehicle) over a long time period (180 days), revealed an apparent increased prevalence of HN (30 to 40%) above the low levels (20%) initially present. However, no significant difference in the prevalence of HN was observed between the control group of mussels fed corn oil (vehicle) and mussels fed either PAHs or PCBs in corn oil. Although chemical contaminants have been proposed as a modulating factor in the development and promotion of HN in bivalve molluscs from environmentally stressed and degraded habitats, we find no evidence that chemical contaminants induce or promote the development of HN in the mussel M. edulis complex.