|Document Type:||Journal Article|
|Title:||Increased susceptibility of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to vibriosis after exposure to chlorinated and aromatic compounds found in contaminated urban estuaries|
|Author:||M. R. Arkoosh, Edmundo Casillas, E. R. Clemons, P. A. Huffman, Anna N. Kagley, T. K. Collier, J. E. Stein|
|Journal:||Journal of Aquatic Animal Health|
Saltwater–adapted juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha exposed to aromatic and chlorinated compounds, representative of contaminants found in urban estuaries in Puget Sound, have a higher susceptibility to vibriosis than do fish exposed only to the solvent vehicle. Susceptibility to vibriosis was assessed by examining the percent cumulative mortality of the salmon after exposure to the bacterial pathogen Vibrio anguillarum. The aromatic and chlorinated compounds examined consisted of a sediment extract from the Hylebos Waterway that was enriched in butadienelike compounds (chlorinated–enriched Hylebos Waterway sediment extract (CHWSE)), a model mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a polychlorinated biphenyl mixture (Aroclor 1254), hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD), and 7,12–dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). Two trials were conducted. In trial l, the percent cumulative mortality of juvenile chinook salmon exposed to V. anguillarum after receiving either CHWSE, HCBD, or the model mixture of PAHs ranged from 28 to 31% compared with the 16% observed in the acetone:emulphor control group at 7 d post–bacterial challenge. In trial 2, the net cumulative mortality of juvenile chinook salmon exposed to V. anguillarum after receiving either DMBA or Aroclor 1254 ranged from 46 to 49% compared with the 25% observed in the acetone:emulphor control group at 9–d postchallenge. The differences in mortality between groups of fish in the treated and control groups in both trials were significant at P ≤ 0.05. These findings suggest that a higher predisposition to infection and subsequent disease can occur in salmon exposed to chemical contaminants found in urban estuaries of Puget Sound, Washington.