|Document Type:||Journal Article|
|Title:||Comparative use by Pacific salmon of shallow and deep water habitats in the Columbia River estuary prior to ocean entry|
|Author:||G. Curtis Roegner, Laurie A. Weitkamp, David J. Teel|
|Journal:||Marine and Coastal Fisheries|
|Keywords:||salmon life history,|
The degree to which fine-scale habitat use by salmonid species and stocks varies within habitat types such as estuaries is not fully resolved. We sampled shallow shoreline and deeper main-stem channel habitats in the Columbia River estuary over 3 years to compare salmon species composition, migration timing, density, size, and production type (hatchery or natural). Results indicated a high degree of spatial heterogeneity in habitat occupancy by the five salmonid species native to the basin. Salmonid communities at two channel habitat sites were much more similar to each other than to the community at a shoreline site. Salmonids sampled at the shoreline site were primarily subyearling Chinook Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, chum O. keta, and yearling coho salmon O. kisutch, with few other salmonids present. In contrast, channel habitat contained a higher diversity of salmon species, with samples representing all species of anadromous salmonids, including sockeye salmon O. nerka and steelhead O. mykiss. Salmonids in deeper channel habitat were generally larger than those found along shore, and the proportion of hatchery-origin salmon was also higher in deep-channel habitats. On a per-area basis, we also found much higher densities of salmon along the shoreline than in channel habitats. For Chinook salmon, habitat use also differed by genetic stock of origin: upper-river stocks primarily used deeper channels, while lower-river populations used both channel and shoreline areas. We concluded that sampling at both habitat types is required to fully encompass the migration patterns of all salmon evolutionarily significant units in the Columbia River basin. These spatial and temporal variations in salmon timing and density have ramifications for feeding, growth, and competitive interactions. This study provides information relevant for conservation efforts targeting specific fish populations and efforts to evaluate the potential impacts of in-water activities in the Columbia River estuary.
|Theme:||Habitats to Support Sustainable Fisheries and Recovered Populations|
Characterize relationships between habitat and ecosystem processes, climate variation, and the viability of organisms.