Northwest Fisheries Science Center

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Document Type: Journal Article
Center: NWFSC
Document ID: 8170
Title: Genetic identification of Chinook salmon:  stock-specific distributions of juveniles along the Washington and Oregon coasts
Author: David J. Teel, Brian J. Burke, David R. Kuligowski, C. A. Morgan, Donald M. Van Doornik
Publication Year: 2015
Journal: Marine and Coastal Fisheries
Volume: 7
Issue: 1
Pages: 274-300
Keywords: juvenile Chinook salmon,genetic stock,life-history,distribution,Columbia River,

We used microsatellite DNA data and genetic stock identification methods to delineate the temporal and spatial distributions of juvenile Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha occupying coastal habitats extending from central Oregon to northern Washington.  Juveniles were collected in trawl surveys conducted during spring, summer and autumn over 15 years.  Distributions (mean latitude and distance from shore) differed between yearling and subyearling life history types and between stocks; many of these differences were consistent across years.  Yearlings were nearly all (98%) from Columbia River sources, and only 6% were naturally produced.  In late May, yearlings from the lower Columbia and Willamette rivers were farther north than other yearlings, likely due to the early spring timing of their releases from hatcheries and subsequent out-migration from the Columbia River.  However, yearling distributions in late June reflected known migration behaviors.  Yearlings from interior Columbia River and Snake River sources were farthest north by June, whereas yearlings from other stocks were more spread out in latitude.  Subyearlings sampled in early summer were also largely from the Columbia River (98%), but greater percentages of subyearlings from coastal rivers were present during the fall (24%).  In contrast to yearlings, natural production accounted for nearly one-third of subyearlings.  Subyearlings of most stocks tended to remain relatively near their point of sea entry throughout the summer.  Subyearlings from the Snake River fall-run stock and upper Columbia summer-fall-run stock exhibited diverse distributions that included both southward and northward dispersal. Overall, distributions of Chinook Salmon stocks and life history types reflected differences in migration behavior but also reflected the influence of environmental factors and hatchery practices.

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Theme: Recovery and rebuilding of marine and coastal species
Foci: Characterize the population biology of species, and develop and improve methods for predicting the status of populations.