|Document Type:||Journal Article|
|Title:||Dietary exposure to individual polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, BDE-47 and BDE-99, alters innate immunity and disease susceptibility in juvenile Chinook salmon|
|Author:||M. R. Arkoosh, A. L. Van Gaest, S. A. Strickland, Alex B. Krupkin, J. P. Dietrich|
|Journal:||Environmental Science & Technology|
|Keywords:||PBDE,Chinook salmon,Immune function,Disease susceptibility,Macrophage,Non-monotonic|
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), used as commercial flame-retardants, are bioaccumulating in threatened salmon. However, little is known of the effects this contaminant class may have on critical physiological functions required for health such as innate immunity and disease susceptibility. BDE-47 and BDE-99 are the most dominant PBDE congeners found in Chinook salmon collected from the Pacific Northwest. In the present study, both innate immunity (phagocytosis and production of superoxide anion) and survival post pathogen challenge were evaluated in groups of juvenile Chinook salmon exposed orally to either BDE-47 or BDE-99 at environmentally relevant concentrations. Head kidney (HK) macrophages from Chinook salmon exposed to BDE-99, but not BDE-47, were found to have a reduced ability in vitro to engulf foreign particles. However, both congeners increased the in vitro production of superoxide anion production in HK macrophages. Salmon exposed to either congener had reduced survival during challenge with the pathogenic marine bacteria Listonella anguillarum. Both disease susceptibility and immune function were altered in Chinook at the lowest concentrations of the congeners examined (306 ng BDE-47/g lipid and 324 ng BDE-99/g lipid) and the effects were found to be non-monotonic relative to concentrations of PBDE in whole bodies.
|Theme:||Habitats to Support Sustainable Fisheries and Recovered Populations|
Characterize the interaction of human use and habitat distribution, quantity and quality.
Assess the impacts of toxic chemicals and other pollutants across biological scales, and identify pollution reduction strategies that improve habitat quality.