Northwest Fisheries Science Center

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Document Type: Journal Article
Center: NWFSC
Document ID: 9016
Title: Identification of Azadinium species and a new azaspiracid from Azadinium poporum in Puget Sound, Washington State, USA
Author: JooHwan Kim, Urban Tillmann, N. G. Adams, Bernd Krock, Whitney L. Stutts, Jonathan R. Deeds, Myung-Soo Han, Vera L. Trainer
Publication Year: 2017
Journal: Harmful Algae
Volume: 68
Pages: 152-167

The identification of a new suite of toxins, called azaspiracids (AZA), as the cause of human illnesses after the consumption of shellfish from the Irish west coast in 1995, resulted in interest in understanding the global distribution of these toxins and several species of the small dinoflagellate, Azadinium, known to produce them. We obtained clonal isolates of four species of Azadinium, A. poporum, A. cuneatum, A. obesum, and A. dalianense, which were isolated from sediment samples collected from Puget Sound, Washington State in 2016. These Azadinium species were identified using morphological characteristics confirmed by molecular phylogeny. Whereas AZA could not be detected in any strains of A. obesum, A. cuneatum and A. dalianense, all four strains of A. poporum produced a new azaspiracid toxin, named AZA-59 based on LC-MS analysis. The presence of AZA-59 was confirmed at low levels in situ using a solid phase resin deployed at several sites along the coastlines of Puget Sound. AZA-59 is similar in structure and therefore is anticipated to have similar toxicity to AZA-37, which is 3-fold less potent than AZA-1.Using a combination of molecular methods for species detection and solid phase resin deployment to target shellfish monitoring of toxin at high-risk sites, the risk of azaspiracid shellfish poisoning can be minimized.


Characterization of 4 Azadinium species and a new azaspiracid in Washington state

Theme: Sustainable, safe and secure seafood for healthy populations and vibrant communities
Foci: Provide scientific support to ensure safe seafood for healthy populations and characterize how human activities and climate affect risks from pathogens, chemical contaminants and biotoxins