Northwest Fisheries Science Center

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Document Type: Journal Article
Center: NWFSC
Document ID: 9059
Title: Oil droplet fouling and differential PAH toxicokinetics in embryos of Atlantic haddock and cod
Author: Lisbet Sørensen, Elin Sørhus, Trond Nordtug, J. P. Incardona, T. L. Linbo, Laura Giovanetti, Ørjan Karlsen, Sonnich Meier
Publication Year: 2017
Journal: PLoS ONE
Keywords: oil spills,Fish,toxicokinetics,PAHs,atlantic haddock,Atlantic cod
Abstract:

The impact of crude oil pollution on early life stages (ELS) of fish, including larvae and embryos, has received considerable attention in recent years. Although precise mechanisms of toxicity are still not fully understood, the main sub-lethal, toxic responses in fish ELS exposed to crude oil have been identified as cardiotoxicity and associated morphogenetic defects. Of the organic components present in to crude oil, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are considered the main compound group responsible for toxic effects in marine organisms. Although some evidence suggests that they are more toxic, alkylated PAHs remain much less studied than their unsubstituted congeners. Recently, it was established that embryos of Atlantic haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) are particularly sensitive to dispersed crude oil, and it was hypothesized that this was caused by direct interaction with crude oil droplets, which adhered to the chorion of exposed embryos. Such a phenomenon would create a second pathway for uptake of crude oil derived compounds into the embryos, increasing the potential for uptake of less water-soluble compounds, including alkylated PAHs. In the current study, we compared the uptake of parent and alkylated PAHs in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock embryos exposed to dispersed crude oil at a range of environmentally relevant concentrations (10 – 600 µg oil/liter seawater). Although the species are biologically very similar, the haddock chorion becomes fouled with oil droplets, while the cod chorion does not, even when the two species are exposed to dispersions of crude oil droplets under similar conditions. A close correlation between the degree of fouling and toxicological response (heart defects, craniofacial malformation) was observed. Oil droplet fouling in haddock led to both quantitative and qualitative differences in PAH uptake. Finally, kinetic data on a large suite of PAHs showed differential elimination, suggesting differential metabolism of unsubstituted versus alkylated compounds.

Theme: Habitats to Support Sustainable Fisheries and Recovered Populations
Foci: Assess the impacts of toxic chemicals and other pollutants across biological scales, and identify pollution reduction strategies that improve habitat quality.
Assess the impacts of toxic chemicals and other pollutants across biological scales, and identify pollution reduction strategies that improve habitat quality.