Northwest Fisheries Science Center

Display All Information

Document Type: Journal Article
Center: NWFSC
Document ID: 933
Title: An Evaluation of the Influence of Stock Origin and Out-migration History on the Disease Susceptibility and Survival of Juvenile Chinook Salmon
Author: J. P. Dietrich, D. Boylen, D. E. Thompson, D. K. Spangenberg, C. F. Bravo, E. J. Loboschefsky, G. M. Ylitalo, D. S. Fryer, T. K. Collier, M. R. Arkoosh, F. Loge
Publication Year: 2011
Journal: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Volume: 23
Issue: 1
Pages: 35-47
DOI: 10.1080/08997659.2011.568859
Keywords: Columbia River, Snake River, smolts, stress, salmon, health, differential delayed mortality, lipids, condition factor, disease challenge, infectious disease, barging
Abstract: Various methods have been developed to mitigate the adverse effects of the Federal Columbia River Power System on juvenile Pacific salmon out-migrating through the Columbia River basin. In this study, we found that hatchery-reared spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the river are in varying degrees of health, which may affect delayed mortality and the assessment of the effectiveness of management actions to recover listed stocks (e.g., barging fish downstream versus leaving fish in the river). A laboratory disease challenge with Listonella anguillarum was completed on fish from Rapid River Hatchery and Dworshak National Fish Hatchery (NFH) with different out-migration histories: (1) transported by barge, (2) removed from the river before barging, or (3) left to travel in-river. Barged fish from Rapid River Hatchery experienced less mortality than fish from Dworshak NFH. No statistical differences were found between the hatcheries with fish that had in-river out-migration histories. We suggest that the stressors and low survival associated with out-migration through the hydropower system eliminated any differences that could have been present. However, 1825% of the fish that were barged or collected before barging died in the laboratory before the disease challenge, compared with less than 2% of those that traveled in-river. Owing to disproportionate prechallenge mortality, the disease-challenged populations may have been biased; thus, they were also considered together with the prechallenge mortalities. The synthesis of prechallenge and disease-challenged mortalities and health characteristics evaluated during out-migration indicated that the benefit of barging was not consistent between the hatcheries. This finding agrees with adult survival and delayed mortality estimates for the individual hatcheries determined from adult returns. The results suggest that the health status of fish and their history before entering the hydropower system (hatchery of origin and out-migration path) are critical variables affecting the conclusions drawn from studies that evaluate mitigation strategies.