U.S. Dept Commerce/NOAA/NMFS/NWFSC/Publications

NOAA-NWFSC Tech Memo-25: Status Review of Pink Salmon from Washington, Oregon, and California Coast

CITATIONS

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GLOSSARY

allele

An allele is an alternate form of a gene (the basic unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring). By convention, the 100 allele is the most common allele in a population and is the reference for the electrophoretic mobility of other alleles of the same gene. Other genetic terms used in this document include allozymes (alternate forms of an enzyme produced by different alleles and often detected by protein electrophoresis); gene locus (pl. loci; the site on a chromosome where a gene is found); genetic distance (D) (a quantitative measure of genetic differences between a pair of samples); and introgression (introduction of genes from one population or species into another). See also DNA, electrophoresis, phenogram, and multidimensional scaling.

artificial propagation

See hatchery.

Biological Review Team (BRT)

A team of scientists from National Marine Fisheries Service formed to conduct the status review.

broodline

The generation of pink salmon that reproduces every other year. Because of the lack of variable age structure in this species, even-year pink salmon are reproductively isolated from odd-year pink salmon.

coded-wire tag (CWT)

A small piece of wire, marked with a binary code, that is normally inserted into the nasal cartilage of juvenile fish. Because the tag is not externally visible, the adipose fin of coded wire-tagged fish is removed to indicate the presence of the tag. Groups of thousands to hundreds of thousands of fish are marked with the same code number to indicate stock, place of origin, or other distinguishing traits for production releases and experimental groups.

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

DNA is a complex molecule that carries an organism s heritable information. The two types of DNA commonly used to examine genetic variation are mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), a circular molecule that is maternally inherited, and nuclear DNA, which is organized into a set of chromosomes. See also allele and electrophoresis.

electrophoresis

Electrophoresis refers to the movement of charged particles in an electric field. It has proven to be a very useful analytical tool for biochemical characters because molecules can be separated on the basis of differences in size or net charge. Protein electrophoresis, which measures differences in the amino acid composition of proteins from different individuals, has been used for over two decades to study natural populations, including all species of anadromous Pacific salmonids. Because the amino acid sequence of proteins is coded for by DNA, data provided by protein electrophoresis provide insight into levels of genetic variability within populations and the extent of genetic differentiation between them. Genetic techniques that focus directly on variation in DNA also routinely use electrophoresis to separate fragments formed by cutting DNA with special enzymes (restriction endonucleases). See also allele and DNA.

ESA

The U.S. Endangered Species Act.

escapement

The number of fish that survive to reach the spawning grounds or hatcheries. The escapement plus the number of fish removed by harvest form the total run size.

even-year pink salmon

Pink salmon that spawn in even-numbered years. The distribution of these fish is variable, but their abundance tends to increase at higher latitudes in both Asia and North America. Even-year pink salmon spawning regularly south of British Columbia are found only in the Snohomish River, Washington.

evolutionarily significant unit (ESU)

A distinct population of Pacific salmon, and hence a species, under the Endangered Species Act.

FST

A measure of population structure that estimates the variance of allele frequencies among populations, standardized relative to the maximum value possible given the observed mean allele frequency.

gene diversity analysis

A hierarchical analysis of the genetic variation observed at polymorphic loci (see allele) in a set of samples that partitions this variation into several, typically geographic, components. Diversity analysis commonly estimates the proportions of observed variation expressed 1) among areas or regions, 2) among populations within areas, and 3) within populations. The total of these proportions equals 1.

hatchery

Salmon hatcheries typically spawn adults in captivity and raise the resulting progeny in fresh water for release into the natural environment. In some cases, fertilized eggs are outplanted (usually in hatch-boxes), but it is more common to release fry (young juveniles) or smolts (juveniles that are physiologically prepared to undergo the migration into salt water). Pink salmon are unusual among Pacific salmon in that they are smolts upon emergence from the gravel and do not require extensive freshwater rearing before migrating to the ocean.

The fish are released either at the hatchery (on-station release) or away from the hatchery (off-station release). Releases may also be classified as within basin (occurring within the river basin in which the hatchery is located or the stock originated from) or out-of- basin (occurring in a river basin other than that in which the hatchery is located or the stock originated from).

The broodstock of some hatcheries is based on adults that return to the hatchery each year; others rely on fish or eggs from other facilities, or capture adults in the wild each year.

island model of migration

An equilibrium model of gene flow and genetic drift that is applied under the assumption that a species (or operational taxonomic unit or ESU) is subdivided into populations of equal size, all of which exchange migrants at a constant rate, with migrants coming with equal probability from all other populations.

minimum spanning tree

A means of depicting nearest genetic neighbors. The tree is an undirected network of smallest genetic distances between genetic samples superimposed on multidimensional scaling graphs to reveal local distortion (pairs of points which look close together in one dimension, but which are far apart in other dimensions). See also multidimensional scaling.

multidimensional scaling

A nonmetric ordination technique used to visualize genetic relationships among populations in two or three dimensions. This technique requires that the distances between samples in two- or three-dimensional graphs have monotonic relationships to the original genetic distances between pairs of samples. See also minimum spanning tree and phenogram.

odd-year pink salmon

Pink salmon that spawn in odd-numbered years. The distribution of these fish is variable, but their abundance tends to increase at lower latitudes in both Asia and North America. Odd-year pink salmon are common in both southern British Columbia and Washington.

phenogram

A graphical means of depicting genetic relationships among populations in the form of a branching tree (also often referred to as a dendrogram). The phenogram is generated from summary statistics, such as genetic distances or similarities, and shows the results of clustering these populations based on these statistics. A clustering algorithm commonly used to generate phenograms from genetic distances or similarities is the unweighted pair group method with averages (UPGMA). See also multidimensional scaling.

polymorphic

Having more than one form (e.g., polymorphic gene loci have more than one allele).

recruit-to-spawner ratio

Several measures are employed to estimate the productivity of salmon populations. The recruit-to-spawner ratio estimates the number of recruits (fish that are available for harvest in addition to those that escape the fishery to spawn) produced by the previous generation s spawners. The spawner-to-spawner ratio estimates the number of spawners (those fish that reproduced or were expected to reproduce) in one generation produced by the previous generation s spawners. A spawner-to-spawner ratio of 1.0 indicates that, on average, each spawner produced one offspring that survived to spawn; the size of such a population would remain unchanged over that generation.

river kilometer (RKm)

Distance, in kilometers, from the mouth of the indicated river. Usually used to identify the location of a physical feature, such as a confluence, dam, waterfall, or spawning area.

spawner surveys

Spawner surveys utilize counts of redds (nests dug by females in which they deposit their eggs) and fish carcasses to estimate spawner escapement and identify habitat being used by spawning fish. Annual surveys can be used to compare the relative magnitude of spawning activity between years. Surveys are conducted on a regular basis on standard stream segments, groups of which form a spawner index, and are occasionally conducted on supplemental stream segments (those that are not part of the standard surveying plan).

Several methodologies have been used to estimate trends in spawner abundance based on the results of redd counts or spawner surveys. The peak count (PC) methodology simply uses the largest number of fish observed during the peak of spawning activity. The area under the curve (AUC) approach estimates the number of fish days (one fish day is equal to one fish (spawner) present on the spawning ground for one day) for a given stream segment; AUC is calculated from the total number of spawners observed over the course of the season, divided by the average residence time of spawners on the spawning ground. Stratified random sampling (SRS) provides an estimate of the number of spawners in a given area based on spawner counts in both standard and supplemental surveys.

Strait of Georgia

The body of water separating the southern portion of Vancouver Island and the British Columbia mainland. The strait extends from Cortes Island and Desolation Sound in the north to the San Juan Islands in the south.

Strait of Juan de Fuca

The body of water separating the southern portion of Vancouver Island and the Olympic Peninsula in Washington. The strait extends from the Pacific Ocean east to the San Juan and Whidbey Islands. The Dungeness and Elwha Rivers on the Olympic Peninsula drain into the Strait of Juan de Fuca.

west coast pink salmon

For the purposes of this document, west coast pink salmon are defined as pink salmon originating from fresh waters of southern British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and California.

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