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NOAA-NMFS-NWFSC TM-33: Sockeye Salmon Status Review (cont)
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Artificial Propagation

Artificial propagation of sockeye salmon has been conducted since before 1900 throughout the Pacific Rim. Efforts at sockeye salmon supplementation in Asia began as a small-scale operation in the 1870s on Hokkaido Island using local stocks, probably kokanee, and then later using sockeye salmon eggs from Alaska (Moberly and Lium 1977). Recent releases of O. nerka (sockeye salmon and kokanee) have continued to be a minor part of overall Pacific salmon artificial propagation efforts in Japan (Kobayashi 1980).

The first salmon hatcheries in the Republic of Korea were not built until the 1960s, and chum salmon were the principal species reared (Atkinson 1976). In Russia, experimental sockeye salmon hatcheries were constructed around 1910 on the Kamchatka Peninsula, and large-scale sockeye salmon fish-rearing facilities were constructed in 1928, also in Kamchatka (Konovalov 1980). The number of sockeye salmon released from Russian hatcheries is small compared to the numbers of artificially reared pink and chum salmon (Roukhlov 1982, Knapp and Johnson 1995). There are hatcheries on the Kamchatka Peninsula producing sockeye salmon (Knapp and Johnson 1995), and Folsom et al. (1992) stated that about 80% of Russia's total hatchery production of sockeye salmon occurs on the Kamchatka Peninsula. Long-term plans formulated by Russian authorities in the 1970s called for the annual release of approximately 80 million juvenile sockeye salmon by the year 2000 (Konovalov 1980).

However, Knapp and Johnson (1995) reported that in 1993, approximately 1,880,000 and 500,000 sockeye salmon were released from "enhanced production" and "fed fry only" programs, respectively, in the Russian Far East (Kamchatka and Magadan Provinces).

Because sockeye salmon have always been an extremely valuable commercial species in Alaska, artificial propagation of sockeye salmon was initiated there before the turn of the century (Roppel 1982). During this period, two federal hatcheries were the most important sockeye salmon facilities: Afognak Hatchery (located on Afognak Island, northeast of Kodiak Island) and Yes Bay Hatchery (at Yes Bay, off Behm Canal north of Ketchikan). These facilities took millions of eggs per year, and not only planted sockeye salmon from the facilities, but transferred eggs to hatcheries in the contiguous United States, sometimes even to Atlantic coast states such as Maine (see Appendix Table D-1).

Catastrophic problems with IHN in ADFG production-scale sockeye salmon hatcheries in Alaska limited sockeye salmon enhancement through the 1970s in Alaska. In 1980, new sockeye salmon culture policies of IHN containment have served to minimize the effects of each outbreak (Burke 1996).

Currently, the Alaska Department of Fish and Game has sockeye salmon smolt production facilities at Snettisham Hatchery near Juneau; Main Bay Hatchery in Prince William Sound; Kitoi Bay Hatchery on Afognak Island; and Trail Lakes, Kasilof and Eklutna Hatcheries in Cook Inlet. Several of these hatcheries have large fry and pre-smolt production programs, as do Beaver Falls Hatchery in Ketchikan, English Bay Hatchery in Cook Inlet, Gulkana Hatchery in the Copper River Basin, and Pillar Creek Hatchery on Kodiak Island. In addition, some of the above fry and pre-smolt facilities are associated with lake enrichment programs (Burke 1996).

Eleven sockeye salmon hatcheries were constructed in British Columbia between 1894 and 1917, all of which were situated near healthy natural populations of sockeye salmon (Foerster 1968). No consistent benefits were evident as a result of the operation of these facilities (e.g., increases in sockeye salmon stocks and/or expansions of commercial fisheries), and it was concluded that artificial propagation in British Columbia did not result in a significant increase in efficiency over natural production in areas where there was a reasonable expectation of successful natural propagation. As a consequence, most of these turn-of-the-century facilities are no longer in operation (Foerster 1968). However, in recent years, artificial propagation programs for sockeye salmon in British Columbia (especially methods using natural rearing strategies and indigenous broodstocks (Miller et al. 1990)) have received renewed attention.

Spawning channels, lake fertilization, barrier removal, and habitat improvement are the primary enhancement methods used for sockeye salmon in British Columbia (Miller et al. 1990). On the lower Fraser River below Hope, B. C., a hatchery on the Pitt River has been releasing sockeye salmon since 1961, and the Weaver Creek and Seabird spawning channels have been in operation since 1966 and 1985, respectively. The Gates, Nadina, Adams, and Horsefly sockeye salmon spawning channels have operated in the upper Fraser River Basin since 1969, 1974, 1981, and 1990, respectively (NRC 1995). The Fulton River and Pinkut Creek spawning channels have operated in the Skeena River system from the mid-1960s to the present. Vancouver Island artificial propagation facilities releasing sockeye salmon were established in 1981 on the Nimpkish River, which empties into Johnstone Strait. In 1989, similar programs were established on Hobiton, Cheewhat, and Nitinat Lakes on the southwest section of the island.

Artificial propagation of sockeye salmon in the contiguous United States began in 1896 at Baker Lake Station in the Skagit River Basin of Washington State. This hatchery remained in operation until its closure in 1933 (Kemmerich 1945). The Birdsview Station on Grandy Creek, also in the Skagit River drainage, reared sockeye salmon from 1908 to 1945. This facility also provided stock for many attempts at establishing populations of sockeye salmon in various watersheds throughout western Washington, with the most notable success being the introduction of a self-sustaining population of sockeye salmon into the Lake Washington watershed.

Despite numerous stocking attempts, establishment of self-perpetuating sockeye salmon runs have been documented only at these three sites: 1) Lake Washington (Royal and Seymour 1940, Kolb 1971), 2) Frazer Lake, Kodiak Island (Blackett 1979), and 3) Upper Adams River in the Fraser River system (Williams 1987). Successful, documented transplants have all involved donor populations originating less than 100 km from the transplant site (Wood 1995). The remainder of this section is intended to provide a summary of the nature and scope of artificial propagation activities for west coast sockeye salmon considered in this status review.

Grand Coulee Fish-Maintenance Project

The construction of Grand Coulee Dam completely blocked the passage of sockeye salmon to the upper Columbia River. WDF et al. (1938) and Mullan (1986) reported that about 85% of the sockeye salmon passing Rock Island Dam between 1935 and 1936 originated from natural stocks up-river from Grand Coulee Dam. To compensate for loss of habitat resulting from the total blockage of up-river fish passage by Grand Coulee Dam, the federal government initiated the Grand Coulee Fish-Maintenance Project in 1939 to maintain fish runs in the Columbia River above Rock Island Dam. For sockeye salmon, this was accomplished through relocation of adults returning to Rock Island Dam, improving habitat, and establishing hatchery operations (Fish and Hanavan 1948). The foremost method of habitat improvement used by the GCFMP was installation of screens on irrigation diversions in tributaries entering the Columbia River above Rock Island Dam, which prevented juvenile salmon from being drawn into irrigation systems (Waknitz et al. 1995).

Between 1939 and 1943 all sockeye salmon adults returning to Rock Island Dam were trapped and transported either to Lake Wenatchee or Lake Osoyoos, or to one of three national fish hatcheries (Leavenworth, Entiat, or Winthrop) for artificial propagation (Fish and Hanavan 1948, Mullan 1986). After 1944, all sockeye salmon passing Rock Island Dam and returning to the Wenatchee and Okanogan Rivers were essentially the progeny of relocated stock.

Mullan showed that between 1944 and 1948, hatchery-reared sockeye salmon constituted 5-98% of the total run. By the mid-1960s, the contribution of hatchery fish as a percentage of all returning adult sockeye salmon had decreased to about 10-22%; about one third of what it had been in the 1940s. Mullan (1986) reported that artificial propagation efforts at the GCFMP hatcheries were abandoned in the 1960s due to "low benefits to costs and catastrophic losses from IHN."

Releases from the GCFMP were thought to contribute to reestablishing healthy sockeye salmon populations in the Wenatchee and Okanogan River Basins (Chapman et al. 1995), as well as producing small populations in the Methow and Entiat Rivers, which previous to the GCFMP apparently did not have sockeye salmon populations (Mullan 1986, Chapman et al. 1995). Mullan (1986) thought it likely that releases of juvenile sockeye salmon (derived from Rock Island Dam, Bonneville Dam, and Lake Wenatchee broodstock) at Winthrop NFH (on the Methow River) gave rise to the Methow River sockeye salmon population, while other releases (derived from Quinault Lake broodstock and their progeny) at the Entiat NFH (on the Entiat River) gave rise to the Entiat River sockeye salmon population.

Stock Transfers and Artificial Propagation

Okanogan River

During the GCFMP (1939-1944), about 2 million sockeye salmon juveniles of the aforementioned upper Columbia River mixed stock (as well as an unknown number of Quinault Lake stock in 1942) were planted into the Okanogan River system, and a total of about 2 million local sockeye salmon have been released since then (see Appendix Table D-2). Average return rates from early plants (1940s) into the Okanogan River system (GCFMP) averaged 0.93% (Fulton and Pearson 1981) and have decreased since then (Mullan 1986).

Current artificial propagation programs in the Okanogan River watershed are intended to replace adult production lost to juvenile sockeye salmon mortality at mainstem hydroelectric projects without reducing natural production or changing the fitness and genetic diversity of natural stocks (Chapman et al. 1995). The Colville Indian Nation has recently initiated an annual release program from its Cassimer Bar Hatchery. Adult sockeye salmon will be collected at Wells Dam and the progeny will be released from net-pens in Lake Osoyoos.

In addition to releases of juveniles during the GCFMP, 19,795 adult sockeye salmon were trapped at Rock Island Dam and released into Lake Osoyoos between 1939 and 1940 (Chapman et al. 1995). There are very limited reports of introductions of artificially-propagated kokanee into the Okanogan River system (see Appendix Table D-5).

Lake Wenatchee

Between 1941 and 1969 almost 60 million sockeye salmon juveniles (only a small percentage of which were of non-upper Columbia River origin (see Appendix Table D-2)) were released into the Wenatchee River system. The Wenatchee River system has been the largest recipient of hatchery fish in the upper Columbia River. Sockeye salmon now returning to the White and Little Wenatchee Rivers are undoubtedly the descendants of stock manipulations during the GCFMP, since Lake Wenatchee sockeye salmon were extremely depressed prior to the construction of Grand Coulee Dam (Fish and Hanavan 1948, see above "Information Specific to Sockeye Salmon Populations Under Review" section). Small numbers of fish that continue to return to Icicle Creek may also be descendants of the GCFMP (Chapman et al. 1995).

Returns from releases of sockeye salmon into the Wenatchee watershed in the 1940s were about 0.90%, which decreased to about 0.15% to 0.67% by the early 1960s (Chapman et al. 1995). However, hatchery fish still contributed to Columbia River sockeye salmon runs in appreciable numbers in some years (Mullan 1986).

No releases of artificially-reared sockeye salmon occurred in the Wenatchee watershed during the years 1970 to 1989 (see Appendix Table D-2). Since 1990, releases into Lake Wenatchee have resumed, these being from the Rock Island Fish Hatchery Complex, constructed and funded by Chelan PUD, and operated by WDFW (Chapman et al. 1995). This facility was designed to supplement the natural production of sockeye salmon in the White and Little Wenatchee Rivers, primarily through the use of extended rearing strategies in net-pens in Lake Wenatchee (Chapman et al. 1995).

In addition to releases of juveniles during the GCFMP, over 32,000 mixed upper Columbia River stock adult sockeye salmon trapped at Rock Island Dam were released into Lake Wenatchee between 1939 and 1943, over 90% of which successfully spawned according to surveys in 1939 and 1942 (Fish and Hanavan 1948).

Over 23 million Lake Whatcom kokanee were released into Lake Wenatchee between 1934 and 1983 (Mullan 1986) (see Appendix Table D-5). Experimental releases in 1946 of fin-marked Lake Wenatchee kokanee, which had been reared at Leavenworth Hatchery, into Icicle Creek and Lake Wenatchee resulted in adult anadromous returns to the Columbia River of 0.27% and 0.50%, respectively (Fulton and Pearson 1981). Fulton and Pearson (1981) questioned whether broodstock used for these experiments were "far enough removed from seaward migratory behavior to be classified as kokanee." Mullan (1986) thought it possible that Lake Wenatchee kokanee may have evolved from the lake's sockeye salmon population within the last 90 years (due to migrational problems for anadromous individuals imposed by water diversions, dams, and resultant high water temperatures in the Wenatchee River) and that, consequently, there may be an incomplete separation of kokanee and sockeye salmon in this lake.

Quinault Lake

Artificial propagation of sockeye salmon has long been a significant feature of sockeye salmon management in Quinault Lake. Since 1916, over 196 million hatchery sockeye salmon have been released in the Quinault River Basin, although most of these were released as fry or fingerlings (see Appendix Table D-2). Two periods of hatchery production of sockeye salmon have occurred in this watershed. The first period spanned the years 1914 to 1947, when the federal government was the primary agency responsible for hatchery efforts in the Quinault Basin. During the second period, from 1973 to the present, an artificial propagation program in Quinault Lake has been operated by the Quinault Indian Nation, while WDFW released sockeye salmon in Quinault Lake in 1985 (NRC 1995).

Prior to 1947, fish were released from the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries Hatchery at Falls Creek on Quinault Lake ("Quinault, Washington Station"), and were mostly native stock, although about 20 million Alaskan sockeye salmon eggs were transferred to the Falls Creek facility prior to 1920 (see Appendix Table D-1). All tribal and WDFW releases since 1973 have been of current Quinault Lake stock; the tribal releases came mostly from an extended rearing program utilizing net-pen rearing in Quinault Lake (Donaldson 1980, NRC 1995, QIN 1995b). To the best of our knowledge, only minor kokanee releases into Quinault Lake have occurred (see Appendix Table D-5).

Although the actual impact of these hatchery programs on native stock are unknown, it is possible to roughly evaluate their relative contribution to total production. Between 1914 and 1947 estimated total escapement of female sockeye salmon to Quinault Lake was about 2,154,000 (assuming a 1:1 sex ratio, total escapement was 4,309,237), and the Quinault, Washington Station on Falls Creek took 237,783,455 native sockeye salmon eggs and released 191,696,000 juvenile sockeye salmon (QIN 1981) (see Appendix Table D-2). Since average fecundity at this hatchery was 2,700 (QIN 1981), total egg production of naturally spawning fish (minus the egg output of the estimated 88,068 females taken at the hatchery) is estimated at over 5.5 billion. Using Foerster's (1968) estimate of egg-fry mortality of 0.88, approximately 669,562,000 naturally produced fry are estimated to have recruited to Quinault Lake between 1914 and 1947. Using these values, approximately 22% of the fry entering Quinault Lake over this period of time were hatchery produced. In reference to the Quinault, Washington Station, QIN (1981) reported that "hatchery releases were of sufficient size to have potentially large effects on the estimated returns per spawner" and "termination of the hatchery operation in 1947 certainly contributed to at least part of the subsequent loss of productivity."

Between 1974 and 1994, over 5 million juvenile sockeye salmon were released in Quinault Lake, and estimated female escapement was 398,562 (assuming a 1:1 sex ratio, total escapement was 797,124), and the calculated natural egg production (again assuming average fecundity of 2,700 and subtracting for the estimated 2,596 female spawners taken for hatchery efforts) was approximately 1,069,100,000. Again using Foerster's (1968) estimate of egg-fry mortality of 0.88, approximately 128,292,000, naturally produced fry are estimated to have recruited to Quinault Lake between 1974 and 1994. Therefore, approximately 3.8% of the fry entering Quinault Lake over this time period were hatchery produced.

Ozette Lake

Artificial propagation has not been extensive in this population. Approximately one million sockeye salmon have been released into the Ozette Lake watershed from 1937 to the present (see Appendix Table D-2). Although this number is small compared to some other sockeye salmon populations discussed in this review, non-indigenous sockeye salmon introductions have been prominent in this watershed. The largest single release of 449,000 fish in 1937 was entirely of Grandy Creek (Birdsview Hatchery) stock, which were reared at the Quilcene National Fish Hatchery before transfer to Ozette Lake (Kemmerich 1945, Boomer 1995, NRC 1995). In addition, 120,000 Quinault stock sockeye salmon were released in 1983 (NRC 1995). Small-scale releases since 1984, when hatchery efforts were undertaken by the Makah Indian Nation, were primarily of Ozette Lake stock (NRC 1995). About 14,400 Ozette Lake kokanee/sockeye salmon hybrids were released in 1991-1992 (MFMD 1995, NRC 1995).

Although the actual impact of the recent hatchery program on the native sockeye salmon stock in Ozette Lake is unknown, it is possible to roughly evaluate the relative hatchery contribution to total production. Between 1988 and 1995, about 330,340 juvenile sockeye salmon were released in Ozette Lake, estimated female escapement between 1988 and 1994 was 3,486 (assuming a 1:1 sex ratio, estimated total escapement was 6,971), and the calculated natural egg production (assuming average fecundity of 2700 and subtracting for the estimated 171 female spawners taken for hatchery efforts) was 8,950,500. Using Foerster's (1968) estimate of egg-fry mortality of 0.88, approximately 1,074,000 naturally produced fry are estimated to have recruited to Ozette Lake between 1988 and 1995. This very coarse approximation leads to the conclusion that about 24% of the fry entering Ozette Lake over this time period were hatchery produced.

Baker River

Artificial propagation has a long history in this population. Between 1896 and 1933, over 202 million sockeye salmon eggs were taken for culture efforts at Baker Lake Hatchery and essentially 100% of the native population was under cultivation (with the exception of some fish that escaped holding pens to spawn naturally) (Kemmerich 1945) (see Appendix Table D-2). Baker Lake Hatchery was constructed in 1896 by the State of Washington (and subsequently sold to the U.S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries in 1899, which later became the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries), while the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries Birdsview Station on Grandy Creek, a nearby tributary of the Skagit River, was established in 1901.

The Grandy Creek-Birdsview Hatchery sockeye salmon stock was started in 1908 with sockeye salmon captured at Point Roberts near Blaine, Washington (Kemmerich 1945). Initially, sockeye salmon propagated at Birdsview Hatchery most likely consisted of mixed stocks of sockeye salmon bound for the Fraser River. In later years, large numbers of Baker Lake (and some Quinault Lake) sockeye salmon were released in Grandy Lake and Creek, together with progeny of sockeye salmon returning to Grandy Creek and the Birdsview Hatchery (Kemmerich 1945) (Appendix table D-2). After 1917 this hatchery population was maintained entirely by propagation of sockeye salmon returning to Grandy Creek and from transfers of eyed eggs from the Baker Lake hatchery.

Over 0.5 million Birdsview Hatchery sockeye salmon fry were released in Baker Lake between 1941 and 1944 (Kemmerich 1945, Appendix table D-2). Birdsview Hatchery sockeye salmon, together with some Baker Lake stock, were extensively transplanted to other locations in Washington, including numerous releases in the Skagit River watershed, the Lake Washington drainage, the Samish River, the Stillaguamish River Basin, Lake Stevens, Mason Lake, Isabella Lake, the Big Quilcene River, Ozette Lake, Beaver Lake, and Lake Pleasant (see Appendix Table D-2). Baker Lake and Birdsview Hatcheries ceased operations in 1934 and 1942, respectively.

Between 1934 and 1957, artificial enhancement efforts for Baker Lake sockeye salmon were suspended (with the exception of lifting adult fish over Lower Baker Dam), and fish spawned and reared naturally in Baker Lake. Between 1957 and 1993, combined enhancement efforts of WDFW and Puget Sound Power and Light Co. contributed over 42 million sockeye salmon juveniles to the Baker River Basin, with over 41.5 million of these produced as fry from the Baker Lake spawning beaches, and the remainder coming from releases from a net-pen program in Lake Shannon (Lower Baker Reservoir) (see Appendix Table D-2).

Most enhancement efforts in Baker Lake used native stock; one small release of fish in 1959 was from Issaquah Creek, which itself was established from Baker River stock (NRC 1995), while some mixed Fraser River and Quinault Lake sockeye salmon were released in Grandy Creek in 1909 and 1917, respectively (Kemmerich 1945) (see Appendix Table D-2). Approximately 955,000 sockeye salmon fry derived from Yes Bay, Alaska stock are known to have been released in Baker Lake in 1931 (Leach 1932) (see Appendix Table D-2). However, the disposition of almost 7 million sockeye salmon eggs transferred from the Samish River Hatchery in 1917-1918, and of over 11 million sockeye salmon eggs transferred from Yes Bay, Alaska in 1925-1926, to the Baker Lake Hatchery is unknown (see Appendix Table D-1). Similarly, the disposition of about 900,000 Quinault Lake stock eggs, 278,000 Afognak, Alaska stock eggs, and 1.2 million Yes Bay, Alaska stock eggs (see Appendix Table D-1) transferred to Birdsview Hatchery between 1917 and 1930, in 1922, and in 1931, respectively, is unknown.

To the best of our knowledge, this watershed was not planted with kokanee until very recently. Approximately 1.1 million Lake Whatcom kokanee were released into Lake Shannon (Lower Baker Reservoir) between 1991 and 1994 to bolster the sport fishery (Appendix Table D-5).

Lake Washington/Sammamish River tributaries

With the exception of sockeye salmon currently in Big Bear Creek, it is likely that most sockeye salmon currently in the Lake Washington Basin result from transplants that occurred between 1935 and 1954, primarily from the Birdsview Hatchery in the Skagit River Basin (Kolb 1971). The Lake Washington Basin received an initial plant of 19,700 sockeye salmon fry from an unknown source in 1917 (Appendix Table D-2). In the 1930s, populations of sockeye salmon were established in Issaquah Creek, the main tributary of Lake Sammamish, and in the Cedar River, the main tributary of Lake Washington, from Birdsview Hatchery stock (Kemmerich 1945, Kolb 1971). Over 0.5 million sockeye salmon juveniles from Birdsview Hatchery (Skagit River) were released in Big Bear Creek in 1937, while approximately 23,600 Cultus Lake sockeye salmon were released in North Creek in 1944 (see Appendix Table D-2). Both Big Bear and North Creeks are tributaries of the Sammamish River.

Egg-box projects released a total of over 25 million juveniles derived from in-basin egg sources into the Cedar River between 1978 and 1982. This project was terminated after it was determined that IHN-mediated mortalities were likely close to 100%. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife currently operates a "portable hatchery" facility for sockeye salmon enhancement at the base of the Landsburg Dam on the Cedar River, with an 8 million egg/year capacity. This facility is scheduled to increase capacity to 17 million eggs/year in 1996 (WDF et al. 1993, J. Ames51). The percentage of fry emigrating from the Cedar River that were hatchery-produced was estimated at 6%, 6%, 27%, and 40% in the years 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1995, respectively (Seiler and Kishimoto 1996).

Between 1917 and 1969, over 44 million kokanee were introduced into Big Bear Creek and its tributaries. Over 35 million of these kokanee were from Lake Whatcom in northwest Washington (see Appendix Table D-5). Lake Sammamish proper, as well as the Sammamish River, have also received extensive plants of kokanee. Between 1917 and 1951, over 18 million kokanee were planted here, at least 6 million of which were Lake Whatcom stock (see Appendix Table D-5).

Lake Pleasant

Lake Pleasant received just under half a million Grandy Creek (Skagit River, Birdsview Hatchery) and Baker Lake sockeye salmon juveniles between 1933 and 1937 (Kemmerich 1945, Boomer 1995) (see Appendix Table D-2). NRC (1995) did not locate records of sockeye salmon stocking in this lake after 1937. A recreational sport fishery exists for kokanee in Lake Pleasant, and Smoker et al. (1952) stated that kokanee (silver trout) from an unknown source were planted in Lake Pleasant in 1936, 1937, and 1938. No further evidence of kokanee plants in Lake Pleasant was found (Kloempken 1996).

Riverine-spawning sockeye salmon

There are very few records of artificial propagation programs for populations of sockeye salmon in Washington or Oregon that spawn in rivers without access to lake-rearing habitat (NRC 1995). Rivers without accessible lake-rearing habitat, with present-day occurrence of spawning sockeye salmon (see Appendix Table C-7), and with a history of sockeye salmon stocking (see Appendix Table D-2) include Icicle Creek and portions of the Skagit, Samish, Stillaguamish, Snohomish, Green, Sol Duc, Chelan, Entiat, Methow, and Similkameen Rivers. Locations where records of spawning sockeye salmon and stocking release location overlap include Icicle Creek and the Samish, Entiat, and Methow Rivers. Sockeye salmon stocking history and present day spawning activity in these rivers are discussed in the above "Information Specific to Sockeye Salmon Populations Under Review" section.

Deschutes River, Oregon

Between 1937 and 1960, Suttle Lake and the headwaters of the Metolius River, into which it drains, were planted with 1.3 million juvenile sockeye salmon, the majority of which were from stock developed during the Grand Coulee Fish Maintenance Project in the upper Columbia River (see Appendix Table D-3). Most of these plants were made directly into the lake. The effect of these plants, if any, on any remnant sockeye salmon that might be indigenous to the Deschutes River basin is unknown. Between 1963 and 1973, 210,658 kokanee of unknown origin were planted into Suttle Lake (ODFW 1995b) (see Appendix Table D-5).

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