U.S. Dept Commerce/NOAA/NMFS/NWFSC/Publications

NOAA-NMFS-NWFSC TM-33: Sockeye Salmon Status Review (cont)

APPENDIX A - GLOSSARY

GLOSSARY

age

Age is based on counts and measurements of annual rings on scales or otoliths (a calcareous "earstone" found in the internal ear of fishes). Several notation styles have been developed to designate age (Koo 1962). In this review the European notation style is used. Freshwater age is generally separated from saltwater age by a period (.); for example, the age of a fish which spent 2 winters in fresh water (not counting the incubation period) and 2 years in saltwater would be represented as age 2.2.

allele

An allele is an alternate form of a gene (the basic unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring). By convention, the "100 allele" is the most common allele in a population and is the reference for the electrophoretic mobility of other alleles of the same gene. Other genetic terms used in this document include allozymes (alternate forms of an enzyme produced by different alleles and often detected by protein electrophoresis); dendrogram (a branching diagram, sometimes resembling a tree, that provides one way of visualizing similarities between different groups or samples); gene locus (pl. loci; the site on a chromosome where a gene is found); genetic distance (D) (a quantitative measure of genetic differences between a pair of samples); and introgression (introduction of genes from one population or species into another). See also DNA and electrophoresis.

artificial propagation See hatchery.

Biological Review Team (BRT)

The team of scientists from National Marine Fisheries Service formed to conduct the status review.

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

DNA is a complex molecule that carries an organism's heritable information. The two types of DNA commonly used to examine genetic variation are mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), a circular molecule that is maternally inherited, and nuclear DNA, which is organized into a set of chromosomes. See also allele and electrophoresis.

electrophoresis

Electrophoresis refers to the movement of charged particles in an electric field. It has proven to be a very useful analytical tool for biochemical characters because molecules can be separated on the basis of differences in size or net charge. Protein electrophoresis, which measures differences in the amino acid composition of proteins from different individuals, has been used for over two decades to study natural populations, including all species of anadromous Pacific salmonids. Because the amino acid sequence of proteins is coded for by DNA, data provided by protein electrophoresis provide insight into levels of genetic variability within populations and the extent of genetic differentiation between them. Genetic techniques that focus directly on variation in DNA also routinely use electrophoresis to separate fragments formed by cutting DNA with special enzymes (restriction endonucleases). See also allele and DNA.

epilimnion

The upper region of a thermally stratified lake, above the thermocline, and generally warm and well oxygenated.

escapement

The number of fish that survive to reach the spawning grounds or hatcheries. The escapement plus the number of fish removed by harvest form the total run size.

evolutionarily significant unit (ESU)

A "distinct" population of Pacific salmon, and hence a species, under the Endangered Species Act.

hatchery

Salmon hatcheries typically spawn adults in captivity and raise the resulting progeny in fresh water for release into the natural environment. In some cases, fertilized eggs are outplanted (usually in "hatch-boxes"), but it is more common to release fry (young juveniles) or smolts (juveniles that are physiologically prepared to undergo the migration into salt water). The fish are released either at the hatchery (on-station release) or away from the hatchery (off-station release). Releases may also be classified as within basin (occurring within the river basin in which the hatchery is located or the stock originated from) or out-of-basin (occurring in a river basin other than that in which the hatchery is located or the stock originated from).

The broodstock of some hatcheries is based on adults that return to the hatchery each year; others rely on fish or eggs from other hatcheries, or capture adults in the wild each year.

hypolimnion

The lower zone of a thermally stratified lake, below the thermocline, and usually depleted in oxygen during summer stagnation.

IHN

Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis; a viral disease endemic to salmonid fishes of the Pacific Coast of North America that can cause high mortality in 3-week to 6-month-old fish.

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jacks

Male salmon that return from the ocean to spawn one or more years before full-sized adults return. For sockeye salmon in Oregon, Washington, and southern British Columbia, jacks are 3 years old (age 1.1), having spent only one winter in the ocean, in contrast to more typical sockeye salmon that are age 1.2, 1.3, 2.2 or 2.3 on return.

jills

Female salmon that return from the ocean to spawn one or more years before full-sized adults return. For sockeye salmon in Oregon, Washington, and southern British Columbia, jills are 3 years old (age 1.1), having spent only one winter in the ocean, in contrast to more typical sockeye salmon that are age 1.2, 1.3, 2.2 or 2.3 on return.

kokanee

The self-perpetuating, nonanadromous form of O. nerka that occurs in balanced sex-ratio populations and whose parents, for several generations back, have spent their whole lives in fresh-water.

morphoedaphic index (MEI)

The most widely used index of potential fish production in lakes. A metric expression of the MEI is derived by dividing a lake's total dissolved solids (mg/L), or its conductivity, by its mean depth in meters.

polymorphic

Having more than one form (e.g., polymorphic gene loci have more than one allele).

principal component analysis (PCA)

A statistical technique that attempts to explain variation among several (n) variables in terms of a smaller number of composite independent factors called principal components. These principal components are represented by eigenvectors, or the perpendicular axes of central trend that pass through the clouds of points represented in n­dimensional space. The matrix of eigenvectors and the matrix of correlations of independent variables are used with linear algebra to calculate the equations describing the principal components that account for the greatest amount of the variation expressed in the original variables. Principal component one (PC1) is defined as a linear combination of the n variables that accounts for more of the variance in the data than any other linear combination of variables. Second (PC2) and subsequent components are defined as linear combinations that account for residual variance after the effect of the first (and subsequent) component(s) is removed from the data. PC values or "scores" are calculated for each individual and subjected to statistical analysis.

resident sockeye salmon

The progeny of anadromous sockeye salmon parents that spend their adult life in freshwater and are observed together with their anadromous siblings on the spawning grounds.

river kilometer (RKm)

Distance, in kilometers, from the mouth of the indicated river. Usually used to identify the location of a physical feature, such as a confluence, dam, waterfall, or spawning area.

smolt

verb- The physiological process that prepares a juvenile anadromous fish to survive the transition from fresh water to salt water.

noun- A juvenile anadromous fish that has smolted.

spawner surveys

Spawner surveys utilize counts of redds (nests dug by females in which they deposit their eggs) and fish carcasses to estimate spawner escapement and identify habitat being used by spawning fish. Annual surveys can be used to compare the relative magnitude of spawning activity between years. Surveys are conducted on a regular basis on standard stream segments, groups of which form a spawner index, and are occasionally conducted on supplemental stream segments (those that are not part of the standard surveying plan).

Strait of Georgia

The body of water separating the southern portion of Vancouver Island and the British Columbia mainland. The strait extends from Cortes Island and Desolation Sound in the north to the San Juan Islands in the south.

Strait of Juan de Fuca

The body of water separating the southern portion of Vancouver Island and the Olympic Peninsula in Washington. The strait extends from the Pacific Ocean east to the San Juan and Whidbey Islands.

thermocline

That layer of water in a lake in which the temperature changes 10C with each meter increase in depth.

west coast sockeye salmon

For the purposes of this document, west coast sockeye salmon are defined as sockeye salmon originating from fresh waters of Washington, Oregon, and British Columbia.




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