Ecotoxicology Program science guides ongoing efforts to protect the most sensitive aquatic and marine species from myriad environmental contaminants that may diminish the likelihood of a successful life cycle. Protective guidelines are developed, in part, from threshold effect concentrations. This entails collecting data from many sources that provide information on adverse effect levels. These data are then assembled into a species sensitivity distribution. The lowest chemical concentration deemed protective is identified with statistical analysis and then applied as the guideline concentration. Guideline values can be based on water, sediment, or tissue concentrations and used in environmental monitoring to assess potential threats to wild populations. This approach is commonly incorporated into ecological risk assessments for threatened and endangered species.
Meador, J.P. 2015. Tissue concentrations as the dose metric to assess potential toxic effects of metals in field-collected fish: copper and cadmium. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 34:1309-1319.
Meador, J.P., M.S. Warne, P.M. Chapman, K.M. Chan, S. Yu, K.M. Leung. 2014. Tissue-based environmental quality benchmarks and standards. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 21:28-32.
Escher, B.I., R. Ashauer, S. Dyer, J.L. Hermens, J.H. Lee, H.A. Leslie, P. Mayer, J.P. Meador, M.S. Warne. 2011. The crucial role of mechanisms and modes of toxic action for understanding internal effect concentrations and tissue residues of organic chemicals. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 7:28-49.
McCarty, L.S., P.F. Landrum, S.N. Luoma, J.P. Meador, A.A. Merten, B.K. Shephard, A.P. van Wezel. 2011. Advancing environmental toxicology through chemical dosimetry: external exposures versus tissue residue. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 7:7- 27.
McElroy, A.E., M. G. Barron, N. Beckvar, S.B. Driscoll, J.P. Meador, T.F. Parkerton, T.G. Preuss, J.A. Steevens. 2011. A Review of the Tissue Residue Approach for Organic and Organometallic Compounds in Aquatic Organisms. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 7:50-74.
Sappington, K.G., T.S. Bridges, S.P. Bradbury, R.J. Erickson, A.J. Hendriks, R.P. Lanno, J.P. Meador, D.R. Mount, M.H. Salazar, D.J. Spry. 2011. Application of the Tissue Residue Approach in Ecological Risk Assessment. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 7:116-140.
Meador, J. P., W. J. Adams, B. I. Escher, L. S. McCarty, A. E. McElroy, K. G. Sappington. 2011. The Tissue Residue Approach for Toxicity Assessment: Findings and Critical Reviews from a Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Pellston Workshop. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 7(1):2-6.
Sappington, K. G., T. S. Bridges, S. P. Bradbury, R. J. Erickson, A. J. Hendriks, R. P. Lanno, J. P. Meador, D. R. Mount, M. H. Salazar, D. J. Spry. 2011. Application of the Tissue Residue Approach in Ecological Risk Assessment. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 7(1):116-140.
Meador, J. P. 2006. Rationale and procedures for using the tissue-residue approach for toxicity assessment and determination of tissue, water, and sediment quality guidelines for aquatic organisms. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 12:1018-1073.
Meador, J. P., T. K. Collier, J. E. Stein. 2002. Determination of a tissue and sediment threshold for tributyltin to protect prey species for juvenile salmonids listed by the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 12:539-551.
Meador, J. P., T. K. Collier, J. E. Stein. 2002. Use of tissue and sediment-based threshold concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to protect juvenile salmonids listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 12:493-516.
Johnson, L. L., T. K. Collier, J. E. Stein. 2002. An analysis in support of sediment quality thresholds for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to protect estuarine fish. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 12:517-538.
Horness, B. H., D. P. Lomax, L. L. Johnson, M. S. Myers, S. M. Pierce, T. K. Collier. 1998. Sediment quality thresholds: Estimates from hockey stick regression of liver lesion prevalence in English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 17:872-882.