Northwest Fisheries Science Center

Ecotoxicology Research Areas


Dr. Nat Scholz
Program Manager
Staff Directory

Stormwater science: green infrastructure effectiveness

The Ecotoxicology Program, together with agency and academic partners, is conducting research to evaluate technologies that effectively reduce toxic stormwater runoff and corresponding impacts on fish and aquatic habitats. Examples of green infrastructure (or low impact development) include permeable pavement and asphalt, rain gardens, and soil mesocosms for stormwater infiltration. The aim of this research theme is to identify "stormwater solutions" that improve habitat quality, are cost-effective for municipalities and other local organizations, and are applicable nationwide. Program scientists are currently collaborating with the Washington State University The next link/button will exit from NWFSC web site Puyallup Research and Extension Center.

Program Contact

Nat Scholz

Project Staff

David Baldwin, Barbara French, John Incardona, Jana Labenia, Cathy Laetz, Tiffany Linbo, Julann Spromberg


NOAA Coastal Services Center, National Coastal Storms Program
The next link/button will exit from NWFSC web site U.S. Fish and Wildlife Program, National Contaminants Program
The next link/button will exit from NWFSC web site U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10
The next link/button will exit from NWFSC web site Washington State University, Puyallup Stormwater Research Facility


McIntyre, J.K., Edmunds, R.C., Mudrock, E., Brown, M., Davis, J.W., Stark, J.D., Incardona, J.P. and Scholz, N.L. 2016. Confirmation of stormwater bioretention treatment effectiveness using molecular indicators of cardiovascular toxicity in developing fish. Environmental Science and Technology, 50:1561-1569.

McIntyre, J.K., Anulacion, B.F., Davis, J.W., Edmunds, R.C., Incardona, J.P., Stark, J.D., and Scholz, N.L. 2016. Severe coal tar sealcoat runoff toxicity to fish is reversed by bioretention filtration. Environmental Science and Technology, 50:1570-1578.

Spromberg, J.A., Baldwin, D.H., Damm, S.E., McIntyre, J.K., Huff, M., Davis, J.W., and Scholz, N.L. 2016. Widespread adult coho salmon spawner mortality in western U.S. urban watersheds: lethal impacts of stormwater runoff are reversed by soil bioinfiltration. Journal of Applied Ecology, 53:398-407.

McIntyre, J.K., Davis, J., Edmunds, R., Incardona, J.P. Scholz, N.L., and Stark, J.D. 2015. Soil bioretention protects juvenile salmon and their prey from the toxic effects of urban stormwater runoff. Chemosphere, 132:213-219.

McIntyre, J.K., Davis, J.W., Incardona, J.P., Stark, J.D., and Scholz, N.L. 2014. Zebrafish and clean water technologies: assessing the protective effects of bioinfiltration as a treatment for toxic urban stormwater runoff. Science of the Total Environment, 500:173-180.