Northwest Fisheries Science Center

Hatchery Reform Science Projects


Dr. Barry Berejikian
Program Manager
Staff Directory

Hatchery Scientific Review Group

The NWFSC is involved with the Congressionally-established Hatchery Scientific Review Group (HSRG) for review of hatchery reform issues for all salmon hatcheries in the Pacific Northwest and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's internal Hatchery Review Team (HRT) for service-related facilities. These reviews have recommended principles for hatchery management based on: 1) setting clear goals; 2) scientific defensibility; and 3) monitoring, evaluation and adaptive management. The reviews have developed management approaches to allow tribal, state, and Federal managers to effectively manage hatcheries to meet conservation and harvest goals consistent within their respective legal responsibilities.

In 1999, Congress established the HSRG to review hatchery programs in the Pacific Northwest with the goal of continuing to provide fish for harvest while, at the same time, reducing risks to natural populations and contributing to achieving conservation goals for Pacific salmon and steelhead. The HSRG was initially charged with reviewing all state, tribal, and Federal hatchery programs in Puget Sound and coastal Washington. Based on the results of those initial reviews, in 2005, Congress directed the group to replicate the HSRG project in the Columbia River Basin. The HSRG reviews of hatchery programs in Puget Sound and coastal Washington were completed in 2005 and resulted in recommended changes to over 200 hatchery programs. Between 2006-2009, the HSRG made recommendations for 351 hatchery programs in the Columbia River Basin. The HRSG is currently focusing on operational reviews of Hatchery reform activities in the Washington State and furthering hatchery reform policies in the Pacific Northwest.

In 2005, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Pacific Region initiated a series of hatchery reviews to assure that its hatchery programs in the Columbia River Basin and on the Olympic Peninsula followed scientifically-sound and integrated strategies consistent with state, tribal, and other Federal strategies for conserving wild stocks and managing fisheries in watersheds within the Region. These reviews were completed in 2010 and were tailored after the HSRG process.


Tom Flagg is the NOAA representative on the HSRG (since 2002) and the HRT (2005-2010).

Barry Berejikian served on the HRT during the review of USFWS Olympic Peninsula hatcheries in 2007-2009.

Recent Publications

Paquet, P., T. Flagg, A. Appleby, J. Barr, L. Blankenship, D. Campton, M. Delarm, T. Evelyn, D. Fast, J. Gislason, P. Kline, D. Maynard, L. Mobrand, G. Nandor, P. Seidel, and S. Smith. 2011. Hatcheries, Conservation, and Sustainable Fisheries—Achieving Multiple Goals: Results of the Hatchery Scientific Review Group’s Columbia River Basin Review. Fisheries 36(11):542-561.

Trushenski, J., C. Kohler, and T. Flagg. 2010. Use of Hatchery Fish for Conservation, Restoration, and Enhancement of Fisheries, Chapter 9. In Inland Fisheries Management in North America, third edition, AFS Press, P. 261-293.

Flagg, T.A., and L.E. Mobrand. 2010. Conservation Aquaculture Approaches for Hatchery Reform. Bulletin of Fisheries Research Agency (Japan), No. 29:85-91.

Mobrand, L., J. Barr, L. Blankenship, D. Campton, T. Evelyn, T. Flagg, C. Mahnken, L. Seeb, P. Seidel, and W. Smoker. 2005. Hatchery Reform in Washington State: Principles and Emerging Issues. Fisheries 30(6):11-23.

Maynard, D.J., T.A. Flagg, R.N. Iwamoto, and C.V.W. Mahnken. 2004. A review of recent studies investigating seminatural rearing strategies as a tool for increasing Pacific salmon postrelease survival. Am. Fish. Soc. Symp. 44:573-584.

Flagg, T.A., C.V.W. Mahnken, and R.N. Iwamoto. 2004. Conservation Hatchery Protocols for Pacific Salmon. Am. Fish. Soc. Symp. 44:603-619.

Maynard, D.J., and T.A. Flagg. 2001. NATURES rearing as a tool for increasing ranched salmon survival. World Aquaculture (June 2001):56-59.

Flagg, T.A., B.A. Berejikian, J.E. Colt, W.W. Dickhoff, L.W. Harrell, D.J. Maynard, C.E. Nash, M.S. Strom, R.N. Iwamoto, and C.V.W. Mahnken. 2000. Ecological and behavioral impacts of artificial production strategies on the abundance of wild salmon populations. U.S. Dep. Commer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-NWFSC-41, 91 p.

Flagg, T.A., D.J. Maynard, and C.V.W. Mahnken. 2000. Conservation hatcheries. Encyclopedia of Aquaculture, J. Wiley and Sons, p.174-176.

Flagg, T.A. and C.E. Nash (editors). 1999. A conceptual framework for conservation hatchery strategies for Pacific salmonids. U.S. Dep. Commer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-NWFSC-38, 48 p.