Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) is endemic among Pacific salmon. It is a persistent source of morbidity and mortality, and a major disease concern for both hatcheries and wildlife resources. The cause of BKD, Renibacterium salmoninarum, can be detected in most salmon stocks.
- Multiple copies of virulence genes in R. salmoninarum are most common from the Pacific Northwest of the US, suggesting there may be local selection pressures for this genotype.
Brynildsrud, O, Gulla, S, Feil, EJ, Nøstebø, SF, Rhodes, LD. 2016. Identifying copy number variation of the dominant virulence factors msa and p22 within genomes of the fish pathogen Renibacterium salmoninarum. Microbial Genomics 2 (DOI.1099/mgen0.000055)
- Whole genome sequencing of R. salmoninarum shows that this highly clonal microorganism was probably distributed between continents through movements of fish over the past 40 years.
Brynildsrud, O, Feil, EJ, Bohlin, J, Castillo-Ramirez, S, Colquhoun, D, McCarthy, U, Matejusova, IM, Rhodes, LD, Wiens, GD, Verner-Jeffreys, DW. 2014. Microevolution of Renibacterium salmoninarum: evidence for intercontinental dissemination associated with fish movements. The ISME Journal 8:746-656.
- A review the the vaccination methods currently available against bacterial kidney disease.
Elliott, DG, Wiens GD, Hammell KL and Rhodes LD. 2014. Vaccination against bacterial kidney disease. IN: Fish Vaccination. R Gudding, A Lillehaug and Ø Evensen. Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.: 255-272.
- Among free-ranging juvenile Chinook salmon, higher fish density is associated with greater likelihood of infection.
Rhodes LD, Rice CA, Greene CM, Teel DJ and others. 2011. Nearshore ecosystem predictors of a bacterial infection in juvenile Chinook salmon. Marine Ecology Progress Series 432:161-172
- The use of multiple diagnostic techniques can reveal fish in different states of infection.
Nance SL, Riederer M,. Zubkowski T, Trudel M, Rhodes LD. 2010. Interpreting dual ELISA and qPCR data for bacterial kidney disease of salmonids. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 91(2):113-119.
- The host response to infection may fail to use cell-mediated immunity to contain the bacterium.
Rhodes LD, Wallis S, Demlow SE. 2009. Genes associated with an effective host response by Chinook salmon to Renibacterium salmoninarum. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 33(2):176-186.
Linda Rhodes, Gladys Yanagida