Marine dinoflagellates in the genus Alexandrium can produce a suite of potent neurotoxins that accumulate in shellfish and cause severe illness or even death if contaminated shellfish are consumed by humans (i.e., Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning). In Puget Sound, blooms of Alexandrium typically occur in the summer and fall; however, the exact timing and location of blooms is highly variable. Research to better understand the complex life cycle of Alexandrium species, which includes benthic cyst and planktonic stages, and environmental controls on growth and toxicity, will inform ecological forecasts of blooms. The early warning provided by these forecasts will allow for better monitoring and management of toxic Alexandrium blooms.
Moore, S. K., N. J. Mantua, et al. (2009). "Recent trends in paralytic shellfish toxins in Puget Sound, relationships to climate, and capacity for prediction of toxic events." Harmful Algae 8(3): 463-477.
Trainer, V. L., B.-T. L. Eberhart, et al. (2003). "Paralytic shellfish toxins in Puget Sound, Washington State." Journal of Shellfish Research 22(1): 213-223.