Northwest Fisheries Science Center

Research Products

Glossary of Restoration Terms
Recent Publications


Dr. George Pess
Program Manager

Remembering Casey Rice

Staff Directory


Our conceptual framework for understanding the effects human activities on salmon and other biota relies on two main linkages: the linkage from landscape processes and land uses to habitat conditions, and the linkage from habitat conditions to salmon and their food webs. In this framework habitats and habitat forming processes are a key connector that must be well understood in order to determine causes of salmon decline, as well as which kinds of habitat restoration actions are most important to salmon recovery.

Hence, our habitat research focuses on the two main conceptual linkages:

Research Products

Landscape processes and habitat formation

Beechie, T.J. 2001. Empirical predictors of annual bed load travel distance, and implications for salmonid habitat restoration and protection. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 26:1025-1034.

Beechie, T.J., B.D. Collins, and G.R. Pess. 2001. Holocene and recent geomorphic processes, land use and salmonid habitat in two north Puget Sound river basins. Pages 37-54 in J. B. Dorava, D. R. Montgomery, F. Fitzpatrick and B. Palcsak, editors. Geomorphic processes and riverine habitat, water science and application. American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C.

Beechie, T.J., and H. Imaki. 2014. Predicting natural channel patterns based on landscape and geomorphic controls in the Columbia River basin, USA. Water Resources Research 50: 1-19. doi:10.1002/2013WR013629

Beechie, T.J., M. Liermann, M.M. Pollock, S. Baker, and J.R. Davies. 2006. Channel pattern and river-floodplain dynamics in forested mountain river systems. Geomorphology 78(1-2):124-141.

Beechie, T.J., M.M. Pollock, and S. Baker. 2008. Channel incision, evolution, and potential recovery in the Walla Walla and Tucannon River basins, northwestern USA. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 33:784-800.

Beechie, T., J. Richardson, A. Gurnell, and J. Negishi. 2013. Chapter 2: Watershed processes, human impacts, and process-based restoration. Pages 11-49 in P. Roni and T. Beechie, editors. Stream and watershed Restoration: a guide to restoring riverine processes and habitats. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, United Kingdom.

Beechie, T.J., and T.H. Sibley. 1997. Relationships between channel characteristics, woody debris, and fish habitat in northwestern Washington streams. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 126:217-229.

Benda, L., T.J. Beechie, R.C. Wissmar, and A. Johnson. 1992. Morphology and evolution of salmonid habitats in a recently deglaciated river basin, Washington State, USA. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 49:1246-1256.

Benda, L., L. Poff, D. Miller, T. Dunne, G. Reeves, G.R. Pess, and M.M. Pollock. 2004. Network disturbance theory: landscape and river organization of environmental variance. Bioscience 54:413-427.

Brenkman, S.J., G.R. Pess, C.E. Torgersen, K. Kloehn, J.J. Duda, and S.C. Corbett. 2008. Predicting recolonization patterns and interactions between potamodromous and anadromous salmonids in response to dam removal in the Elwha River, Washington State, USA. Northwest Science 82(Special Issue): 91-106.

Cram, J., C.E. Torgersen, R. Klett, G.R. Pess, D. May, T.N. Pearsons, and A.H. Dittman. 2012. Tradeoffs between homing and habitat quality for spawning site selection by hatchery-origin Chinook salmon. Environmental Biology of Fishes. doi:10.1007/s10641-012-0026-1.

Feist, B.E., E.A. Steel, G.R. Pess, and R.E. Bilby. 2003. The influence of scale on salmon habitat restoration priorities. Animal Conservation 6:271-282.

Hall, J.E., D.M. Holzer, and T.J. Beechie. 2007. Predicting river floodplain and lateral channel migration for salmon habitat conservation. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 43(3):786-797.

Kiffney, P.M., J.P. Bull, and M.C. Feller. 2002. Climatic and hydrologic variability in a coastal watershed of southwestern British Columbia. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 38:1437-1451.

Kloehn, K., T.J. Beechie, S.A. Morley, H. Coe, and J.J. Duda. 2008. Influence of Dams on River-Floodplain Dynamics in the Elwha River, Washington. Northwest Science 82 (Special Issue): 224-235.

Naiman, R.J., J.S. Bechtold, T. Beechie, J.J. Latterell, and R. Van Pelt. 2010. A process-based view of floodplain forest dynamics in coastal river valleys of the Pacific Northwest. Ecosystems 13:1-31.

Naiman, R.J., T.J. Beechie, L.E. Benda, D.R. Berg, P.A. Bisson, L.H. MacDonald, M.D. O'Connor, P.L. Olson, and E.A. Steel. 1992. Fundamental elements of ecologically healthy watersheds in the Pacific Northwest coastal ecoregion. Pages 127-188 in R. J. Naiman, editor. Watershed management: balancing sustainability and environmental change. Springer-Verlag. New York.

Pess, G.R., M. McHenry, T.J. Beechie, and J.R. Davies. 2008. Biological impacts of the Elwha River dams and potential salmonid responses to dam removal. Northwest Science 82 (Special Issue):72-90.

Poole, G.C., S.J. O'Daniel, K.L. Jones, W.W. Woessner, E.S. Bernhardt, A.M. Helton, J.A. Stanford, B.R. Boer, and T.J. Beechie. 2008. Hydrologic spirals: the role of multiple interactive flow paths in stream ecosystems. River Research and Applications 24:1018-1031.

Reidy Liermann, C.A., J.D. Olden, T.J. Beechie, M.J. Kennard, P. Skidmore, C. Konrad, and H. Imaki. 2011. Hydrogeomorphic classification of Washington State rivers to support emerging environmental flow management strategies. River Research and Applications. doi:10.1002/rra.1541.

Rice, S., P. Kiffney, C.M. Greene, and G.R. Pess. 2008. The ecological importance of tributaries and confluences. River Confluences, tributaries and the fluvial network. Wiley Publishing, London.

Rosenfeld, J.S., D. Hogan, D. Palm, H. Lundqvist, C. Nilsson, and T.J. Beechie. 2010. Contrasting landscape influences on sediment supply and stream restoration priorities In northern Fennoscandia (Sweden And Finland) and coastal British Columbia. Environmental Management 47(1):28-39.

Tomlinson, M.J., S.E. Gergel, T.J. Beechie, and M.M. McClure. 2011. Long-term changes in river-floodplain dynamics: implications for salmonid habitat in the Interior Columbia Basin, USA. Ecological Applications 21(5):1643-1658.

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Habitat condition and biological response

Beechie, T.J., M. Liermann, E.M. Beamer, and R. Henderson. 2005. A classification of habitat types in a large river and their use by juvenile salmonids. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 134:717-729.

Beechie, T.J., M. Ruckelshaus, E. Buhle, A. Fullerton, and L. Holsinger. 2006. Hydrologic regime and the conservation of salmon life history diversity. Biological Conservation 130(4):560-572.

Coe, H., A. Wei, and P. Kiffney. 2013 Linking reach and watershed-scale forest harvest to benthic macroinvertebrate communities in the interior of British Columbia. Hydrobiologia 717:65-84.

Jensen, D.W., E.A. Steel, A.H. Fullerton, and G.R. Pess. 2009. Impact of fine sediment on egg-to-fry survival of Pacific salmon: a meta-analysis of published studies. Reviews in Fisheries Science 17:348-359.

Lisi, P.J., D.E. Schindler, and G.R. Pess. 2013. Association between geomorphic attributes of watersheds, water temperature, and salmon spawn timing in Alaskan streams. Geomorphology 185:78-86.

Pess, G.R., D.R. Montgomery, E.A. Steel, R.E. Bilby, B.E. Feist, and H.M. Greenberg. 2002. Landscape characteristics, land use, and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) abundance, Snohomish River, Wash., USA. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 59:613-623.

Pess, G.R., T.P. Quinn, D.E. Schindler, and M. Liermann. 2013. Freshwater habitat associations between pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), chum (O. keta), and Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) in a watershed dominated by sockeye salmon (O. nerka) abundance. Ecology of Freshwater Fish. doi:10.1111/eff.12088.

Roni, P. 2002. Habitat use by fishes and Pacific giant salamanders in small western Oregon and Washington streams. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 131:743-761.

Ward, E., G.R. Pess, K. Anlauf-Dunn, and C.E. Jordan. 2012. Applying time series models with spatial correlation to identify the scale of variation in habitat metrics related to threatened coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in the Pacific Northwest. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 69(11):1773-1782.

See our River Restoration research products

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