Northwest Fisheries Science Center

Research Products

Glossary of Restoration Terms
Recent Publications


Dr. George Pess
Program Manager

Remembering Casey Rice

Staff Directory

River Ecology

River ecology theory is based largely on the concept of food webs and community dynamics, including how energy moves through different parts of the watershed, how human activities modify energy flow, and how bioenergetics regulates fish growth and survival. Watershed Program scientists investigate stream food webs and fish ecology with a focus on juvenile salmon in a variety of regions (i.e., Interior Columbia, Olympic Peninsula, Puget Sound, British Columbia), and environments (streams, rivers, estuaries). These projects quantify the relative importance of abiotic (e.g., temperature) and biotic (e.g., competition) controls on the flow of energy to salmon in relatively pristine systems, as well as how different types of land use (i.e., forestry vs. agriculture vs. urban) and restoration actions (i.e., carcass placement and logjam placement) effect energy flow in aquatic food webs.

Research products are broadly categorized here as:

Research Products

Riverine food webs

Duda, J.J., H. Coe, S.A. Morley, and K. Kloehn. 2011. Establishing spatial trends in water chemistry and stable isotopes d15 N and d13 C in the Elwha River prior to dam removal: a foodweb perspective. River Research and Applications 27:1169-1181. doi:10.1002/rra.1413

Karlsson, O.M., J.S. Richardson, and P.M. Kiffney. 2005. Modelling organic matter dynamics in headwater streams of south-western British Columbia, Canada. Ecological Modelling 183:463-476.

Kiffney, P.M. 2008. The structure of simple food chains in headwater streams of southwestern British Columbia in response to gradients of resource supply and predation pressure. Oikos.

Kiffney, P.M., R.E. Bilby, and B.L. Sanderson. 2005. Monitoring the effects of nutrient enrichment on freshwater ecosystems. Pages 237-265 in P. Roni, editor. Methods for monitoring stream and watershed restoration. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland.

Kiffney, P.M., E. Buhle, S. Naman, G. Pess, and R. Klett. (In press) Linking resource availability, habitat structure and local density to stream organisms: an experimental and observational assessment. Ecosphere.

Kiffney, P.M., and J.P. Bull. 2000. Factors controlling periphyton accrual during summer in headwater streams of southwestern British Columbia, Canada. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 15:339-351

Kiffney, P.M., and W.H. Clements. 2002. Ecological effects of metals on benthic invertebrate communities. Pages 135-154 in T. Simon and P. Stewart, editors. Biological response signatures: a multimetric index patterns for assessment of freshwater aquatic assemblages. CRC Press.

Kiffney, P.M., C.M. Greene, J.R. Davies, and J.E. Hall. 2006. Tributary streams create spatial discontinuities in habitat, biological productivity, and diversity in mainstem rivers. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 63(11):2518-2530.

Kiffney, P.M., J.S. Richardson, and M. C. Feller. 2000. Fluvial and epilithic organic matter dynamics in small streams of southwestern British Columbia, Canada. Archives of Hydrobiology 149:109-129.

Kiffney, P.M., and P. Roni. 2007. Relationship between productivity, physical habitat, and aquatic invertebrate and vertebrate populations of forest streams: An information-theoretic approach. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 136:1088-1103.

Kiffney, P.M., C.J. Volk, T.J. Beechie, G.L. Murray, G.R. Pess, and R.E. Edmonds. 2004. A high-severity disturbance event alters community and ecosystem properties in West Twin Creek, Olympic National Park, Washington, USA. American Midland Naturalist 152:268-303.

Macneale, K.H., P.M. Kiffney, and N.L. Scholz. 2010. Pesticides, aquatic food webs and the conservation of Pacific salmonids. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 9:475-482.

Morley, S.A., J.J. Duda, H. Coe, K. Kloehn, and M. McHenry. 2008. Benthic invertebrates and periphyton in the Elwha River basin: current conditions and predicted response to dam removal. Northwest Science 82(Special Issue):179-196.

Naman, S.M., P.M. Kiffney, G.R. Pess, T.W. Buehrens, and T.R. Bennett. In press. Abundance and body condition of Cottids in a small forested stream following recolonization by juvenile coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch. River Research and Applications. doi:10.1002/rra.2643.

Reichert, W.L., C.M. Greene, and R.E. Bilby. 2008. Seasonal variations in stable isotope ratios of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) from western Washington rivers. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 65(4):681-690.

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Fish ecology

Anderson, J.H., P.M. Kiffney, G.R. Pess, and T.P. Quinn. 2008. Distribution and growth of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) during colonization of newly accessible habitat. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 137:772-781.

Anderson, J.H., G.R. Pess, P.M. Kiffney, T.R. Bennett, P. Faulds, and T.P. Quinn. 2013. Dispersal of colonizing juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch): tributary immigration and the influence of emergence date and kin association. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 22:30-42. doi:0.1111/j.1600-0633.2012.00589.x.

Johnson, C.L., P. Roni, and G.R. Pess. 2012. Adult fitness as a primary factor limiting egg-to-fry survival of spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in upper Yakima River basin. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 141(5):1295-1309. doi:10.1080/00028487.2012.690815.

Kahler, T.H., P. Roni, and T.P. Quinn. 2001. Summer movement and growth of juvenile anadromous salmonids in small western Washington streams. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 58:1947-1956.

Macneale, K.H., B.L. Sanderson, J.P. Courbois, and P.M. Kiffney. 2010. Effects of nonnative brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) on threatened juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in an Idaho stream. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 19:139-152.

Pess, G.R., P.M. Kiffney, M. Liermann, T.R. Bennett, J.H. Anderson, and T.P. Quinn. 2011. The influences of body size, habitat quality, and competition on the movement and survival of juvenile coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, during the early stages of stream re-colonization. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 140:883-897. doi:10.1080/00028487.2011.587752.

Pollock, M.M., M. Heim, and D. Werner. 2003. Hydrologic and geomorphic ;effects of beaver dams and their influence on fishes. Pages 213-233 in S. V. Gregory, K. L. Boyer and A. M. Gurnell, editors. The ecology and management of wood in world rivers - proceedings of the international conference on wood in world rivers. American Fisheries Society, Corvallis, Oregon.

Pollock, M.M., G.R. Pess, T.J. Beechie, and D.R. Montgomery. 2004. The importance of beaver ponds to coho salmon production in the Stillaguamish River basin, Washington, USA. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 24:749-760.

Roni, P., T.R. Bennett, R. Holland, G.R. Pess, K. Hanson, R.E. Moses, M. McHenry, W. Ehinger, and J. Walter. 2012. Factors affecting migration timing, growth and survival of juvenile coho salmon in two coastal Washington watersheds. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 141(4):890-906. doi:0.1080/00028487.2012.675895.

Roni, P., and A. Fayram. 2000. Estimating winter salmonid abundance in small western Washington streams: a comparison of three techniques. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 20:683-692.

Roni, P., L. Wietkamp, and J. Scordino. 1999. Identification of essential fish habitat for salmon in the Pacific Northwest: Initial efforts, information needs, and future direction. Pages 93-107 in L. R. Benaka, editor. Fish Habitat: essential fish habitat and rehabilitation. American Fisheries Symposium 22, Bethesda, Maryland.

See our River Restoration research products.

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