Northwest Fisheries Science Center

Research Products

Glossary of Restoration Terms
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Staff

Dr. George Pess
Program Manager

Remembering Casey Rice

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Salmon Ecology and Population Dynamics

Recovery of salmon populations listed under the endangered species act is perhaps the largest and most persistent management issue facing NOAA regulatory staff. While this issue encompasses a broad array of management issues—harvest, hatcheries, hydropower, non-indigenous species, and habitats), a key listing factor for most populations is habitat decline. Therefore, it is important that we have sound science base in salmon ecology and life history, as well as a solid technical base in modeling salmon population dynamics as a function of habitat change or restoration actions.

In this management context, the Watershed Program has addressed a wide range of basic research questions that focus on these main topic areas:

Research Products

Salmon behavior and life history

Anderson, J.H., P. Faulds, W.I. Atlas, G.R. Pess, and T.P. Quinn. 2010. Selection on breeding date and body size in colonizing coho salmon. Molecular Ecology 19(12):2562-2573.

Anderson, J.H., P.M. Kiffney, G.R. Pess, and T.P. Quinn. 2008. Distribution and growth of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) during colonization of newly accessible habitat. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 137:772-781.

Anderson, J.H., G.R. Pess, P.M. Kiffney, T.R. Bennett, P. Faulds, and T.P. Quinn. 2013. Dispersal of colonizing juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch): tributary immigration and the influence of emergence date and kin association. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 22:30-42. doi:0.1111/j.1600-0633.2012.00589.

Beechie, T.J., E. Buhle, M.H. Ruckelshaus, A.H. Fullerton, and L. Holsinger. 2006. Hydrologic regime and the conservation of salmon life history diversity. Biological Conservation 130(4):560-572.

Beechie, T.J., H. Moir, and G.R. Pess. 2008. Hierarchical physical controls on salmonid spawning location and timing. American Fisheries Society Symposium 65:83-102.

Johnson, C.L., P. Roni, and G.R. Pess. 2012. Adult fitness as a primary factor limiting egg-to-fry survival of spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in upper Yakima River basin. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 141(5):1295-1309. doi:10.1080/00028487.2012.690815.

Kahler, T.H., P. Roni, and T.P. Quinn. 2001. Summer movement and growth of juvenile anadromous salmonids in small western Washington streams. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 58:1947-1956.

Macneale, K.H., B.L. Sanderson, J.P. Courbois, and P.M. Kiffney. 2010. Effects of nonnative brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) on threatened juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in an Idaho stream. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 19:139-152.

McMillan, J.R., S.L. Katz, and G.R. Pess. 2007. Observational evidence of spatial and temporal structure in a sympatric anadromous (winter steelhead) and resident rainbow trout mating system on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 136(3):736-748.

Pess, G.R., P.M. Kiffney, M. Liermann, T.R. Bennett, J.H. Anderson, and T.P. Quinn. 2011. The influences of body size, habitat quality, and competition on the movement and survival of juvenile coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, during the early stages of stream re-colonization. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 140:883-897. doi:10.1080/00028487.2011.587752.

Pess, G.R., D.R. Montgomery, T.J. Beechie, and L. Holsinger. 2002. Anthropogenic alterations to the biogeography of salmon in Puget Sound. Pages 129-154 in D. R. Montgomery, S. Bolton and D. B. Booth, editors. Restoration of Puget Sound rivers. University of Washington Press, Seattle.

Pollock, M. M., G. R. Pess, T. J. Beechie, and D. R. Montgomery. 2004. The importance of beaver ponds to coho salmon production in the Stillaguamish River basin, Washington, USA. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 24:749-760.

Roni, P., T.R. Bennett, R. Holland, G.R. Pess, K. Hanson, R.E. Moses, M. McHenry, W. Ehinger, and J. Walter. 2012. Factors affecting migration timing, growth and survival of juvenile coho salmon in two coastal Washington watersheds. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 141(4):890-906. doi:10.1080/00028487.2012.675895

Roni, P., and A. Fayram. 2000. Estimating winter salmonid abundance in small western Washington streams: a comparison of three techniques. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 20:683-692.

Roni, P., and T.P. Quinn. 2001. Effects of artificial wood placement on movements of trout and juvenile coho salmon in natural and artificial channels. Transactions of American Fisheries Society 130:675-685.

Roni, P., L. Wietkamp, and J. Scordino. 1999. Identification of essential fish habitat for salmon in the Pacific Northwest: initial efforts, information needs, and future direction. Pages 93-107 in L. R. Benaka, editor. Fish Habitat: essential fish habitat and rehabilitation. American Fisheries Symposium 22, Bethesda, Maryland.

Waples, R.S., T.J. Beechie and G.R. Pess 2009. Evolutionary history, habitat disturbance regimes, and anthropogenic changes: what do these mean for resilience of Pacific salmon populations? Ecology and Society 14(1):3. [online]
URL: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol14/iss1/art3/

Waples, R.S., G.R. Pess, and T.J. Beechie. 2008. Evolutionary history of Pacific salmon in dynamic environments. Evolutionary Applications 1:189-206.

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Salmon population resilience

Beechie, T.J., M. Ruckelshaus, E. Buhle, A. Fullerton, and L. Holsinger. 2006. Hydrologic regime and the conservation of salmon life history diversity. Biological Conservation 130(4):560-572.

Greene, C.M., J. Hall, K. Guilbault, and T.P. Quinn. 2009. Improved viability of population with diverse life history portfolios. Biology Letters. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2009.0780.

McClure, M., S. Carlson, G. Pess, T. Beechie, J. Jorgensen, S. Sogard, B. Sanderson, D. Holzer, R. Carmichael, and M. Power. 2008. Evolutionary consequences of habitat loss for Pacific anadromous Salmonids. Evolutionary Applications 1:300-318.

Pess, G., D.R. Montgomery, T.J. Beechie, and L. Holsinger. 2003. Anthropogenic alterations to the biogeography of Puget Sound salmon. Pages 129-154 in D. Montgomery, S. Bolton, D. Booth and L. Wall, editors. Restoration of Puget Sound Rivers. University of Washington Press, Seattle.

Waples, R.S., T.J. Beechie and G.R. Pess 2009. Evolutionary history, habitat disturbance regimes, and anthropogenic changes: what do these mean for resilience of Pacific salmon populations? Ecology and Society 14(1):3. [online]
URL: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol14/iss1/art3/

Waples, R.S., G.R. Pess, and T. Beechie. 2008. Evolutionary history of Pacific salmon in dynamic environments. Evolutionary Applications 1:189-206.

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Population dynamics and life cycle modeling

Fullerton, A.H., S.T. Lindley, G.R. Pess, B.E. Feist, E.A. Steel, and P. McElhany. 2011. Human influence on the spatial structure of threatened Pacific salmon metapopulations. Conservation Biology 25(5):932-944. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2011.01718.x.

Greene, C.M. 2003. Habitat selection reduces extinction of populations subject to allee effects. Theoretical Population Biology 64:1-10.

Greene, C.M. 2008. Population dynamics - allee effects. Pages 123-127 in The encyclopedia of ecology. Elsevier, Oxford.

Greene, C.M., and T.J. Beechie. 2004. Habitat-specific population dynamics of ocean-type chinook salmon (Onchorynchus tshawytscha) in Puget Sound. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 61:590-602.

Greene, C.M., J. Hall, K. Guilbault, and T.P. Quinn. 2009. Improved viability of population with diverse life history portfolios. Biology Letters. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2009.0780.

Greene, C.M., D.W. Jensen, E. Beamer, G.R. Pess, and A.E. Steel. 2005. Effects of environmental conditions during stream, estuary, and ocean residency on Chinook salmon return rates in the Skagit River, WA. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 134:1562-1581.

McClure, M.M., S.M. Carlson, T.J. Beechie, G.R. Pess, J.C. Jorgensen, S.M. Sogard, S.E. Sultan, D.M. Holzer, J. Travis, B.L. Sanderson, M.E. Power, and R.W. Carmichael. 2008. Evolutionary consequences of habitat loss for Pacific anadromous salmonids. Evolutionary Applications 1(2): 300-318.

Pess, G. R., R. Hilborn, K. Kloehn, and T. P. Quinn. 2012. The influence of population dynamics and environmental conditions on pink salmon recolonization after barrier removal. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 69:970-982. doi:10.1139/F2012-030.

Sharma, R.R., and M. Liermann. 2010. Using hierarchical models to estimate effects of ocean anomalies of Pacific Northwest Chinook, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, recruitment. Journal of Fish Biology 77(8):1948-1963.

See our River Restoration research products and Estuary Restoration research products.

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