Northwest Fisheries Science Center

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Glossary of Restoration Terms
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Dr. George Pess
Program Manager

Remembering Casey Rice

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Restoration Effectiveness

Watershed restoration had a long history and has become a billion dollar a year industry in the United States. Unfortunately, only a small fraction of projects are ever evaluated and the need for better monitoring and evaluation of restoration is as pressing today as it was decades ago. Understanding the effectiveness of restoration at different scale is critical for improving the efficacy of restoration, selecting appropriate restoration and prioritizing restoration actions. To assist with this, Watershed Program scientists have been evaluating a variety of restoration techniques in both rivers and estuaries and have developed:

Research Products

Reviews of restoration effectiveness

Roni, P., T.J. Beechie, R.E., Bilby, F.E. Leonetti, M. M. Pollock, and G.P. Pess. 2002. A review of stream restoration techniques and a hierarchical strategy for prioritizing restoration in Pacific Northwest watersheds. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 22:1-20.

Roni, P., K. Hanson, and T. Beechie. 2008. Global review of physical and biological effectiveness of stream rehabilitation. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 28:856-890.

Roni, P., K. Hanson, G. Pess, T. Beechie, M. Pollock, and D. Bartley. 2005. Habitat rehabilitation for inland fisheries: global review of effectiveness and guidance for restoration of freshwater ecosystems. Fisheries Technical Paper 484. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.

Welcomme R.L., and P. Roni. 2008. Inland Fisheries 1. Rehabilitation for inland waters for fisheries. FAO Technical Guidelines For Responsible Fisheries No. 6. Suppl. 1. FAO, Rome. 120p.

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River restoration effectiveness

Anderson, J.H., P. Faulds, W.I. Atlas, G.R. Pess, and T.P. Quinn. 2010. Selection on breeding date and body size in colonizing coho salmon. Molecular Ecology 19(12):2562-2573.

Anderson, J.H., P.M. Kiffney, G.R. Pess, and T.P. Quinn. 2008. Distribution and growth of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) during colonization of newly accessible habitat. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 137:772-781.

Anderson, J.H., G.R. Pess, P.M. Kiffney, T.R. Bennett, P. Faulds, and T.P. Quinn. 2013. Dispersal of colonizing juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch): tributary immigration and the influence of emergence date and kin association. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 22:30-42. doi:0.1111/j.1600-0633.2012.00589.x.

Booth, D.B., J.R. Karr, S. Schauman, C.P. Konrad, S.A. Morley, M.G. Larson, and S.J. Burges. 2004. Reviving urban streams: land use, hydrology, biology, and human behavior. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 40:1351-1364.

Coe, H., P. Kiffney, G.R. Pess, K. Kloehn, and M. McHenry. 2009. Periphyton and invertebrate response to wood placement in large Pacific coastal rivers. River Research and Applications 25:1025-1035.

Coe, H., P.M. Kiffney, and G.R. Pess. 2006. A comparison of methods to evaluate the response of periphyton and invertebrates to wood placement in large Pacific coastal rivers. Northwest Science 80(4):298-307.

Duda, J.J., H. Coe, S.A. Morley, and K. Kloehn. 2010. Establishing spatial trends in water chemistry and stable isotopes d15 N and d13 C in the Elwha river prior to dam removal: a foodweb perspective. River Research and Applications 27:1169-1181. doi:10.1002/rra.1413.

Kiffney, P.M., G.R. Pess, J.H. Anderson, K. Burton, P. Faulds, and S. Riley. 2009. Changes in fish communities following recolonization of the Cedar River, WA, USA by Pacific salmon after 103 years of local extirpation. River Research and Applications 25(4):438-452.

Morley, S.A., and J.R. Karr. 2002. Assessing and restoring the health of urban streams in the Puget Sound Basin. Conservation Biology 16:1498-1509.

Morley, S.A., P.S. Garcia, T.R. Bennett, and P. Roni. 2005. Juvenile salmonid (Oncorhynchus spp.) use of constructed and natural side channels in Pacific Northwest Rivers. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 62:2811-2821.

Naman, S.M., P.M. Kiffney, G.R. Pess, T.W. Buehrens, and T.R. Bennett. 2013. Abundance and body condition of Cottids in a small forested stream following recolonization by juvenile coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch. River Research and Applications. doi: 10.1002/rra.2643.

Pess, G.R., S.J. Brenkman, G.A. Winans, M.L. McHenry, T.J. Beechie, and J.J. Duda. 2010. The Elwha River dam removal: a major opportunity for salmon and steelhead recolonization. The Osprey (65)1-8.

Pess, G.R., R. Hilborn, K. Kloehn, and T.P. Quinn. 2012. The influence of population dynamics and environmental conditions on pink salmon recolonization after barrier removal. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 69:970-982. doi:10.1139/F2012-030.

Pess, G.R., P.M. Kiffney, M. Liermann, T.R. Bennett, J. H. Anderson, and T.P. Quinn. 2011. The influences of body size, habitat quality, and competition on the movement and survival of juvenile coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, during the early stages of stream re-colonization. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 140:883-897. doi:10.1080/00028487.2011.587752.

Pess, G.R., M. Liermann, M.L. McHenry, R.J. Peters, and T.R. Bennett. 2011. Juvenile salmonid response to the replacement of engineered logjams (ELJs) in the Elwha River. River Research and Applications. doi:10.1002/rra.1481.

Roni, P. 2003. Responses of benthic fishes and giant salamanders to placement of large woody debris in small Pacific Northwest streams. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 23:1087-1097.

Roni, P., T.R. Bennett, S.A. Morley, G.R. Pess, K. Hanson, D. Van Slyke, and P. Olmstead. 2006. Rehabilitation of bedrock stream channels: the effects of boulder weir replacement on aquatic habitat and biota. River Research and Applications 22:967-980.

Roni, P., S.A. Morley, P.S. Garcia, C. Detrick, I.D. King, and E.M. Beamer. 2006. Coho salmon smolt production from constructed and natural floodplain habitats. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 135:1398-1408.

Roni, P., and T.P. Quinn. 2001. Density and size of juvenile salmonids in response to placement of large woody debris in western Oregon and Washington streams. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 58:282-292.

Roni, P., and T.P. Quinn. 2001. Effects of artificial wood placement on movements of trout and juvenile coho salmon in natural and artificial channels. Transactions of American Fisheries Society 130:675-685.

Roni, P., D. Van Slyke, B.A. Miller, J. Ebersole, and G. Pess. 2008. Adult coho salmon and steelhead trout use of boulder weirs in Southwest Oregon streams. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 28:970-978.

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Estuary restoration effectiveness

Beamer, E.M., A. McBride, C. Greene, R. Henderson, G. Hood, K. Wolf, K. Larsen, C. Rice, and K. Fresh. 2005. Delta and nearshore restoration for the recovery of wild Skagit River chinook salmon: Linking estuary restoration to wild chinook salmon populations. Appendix D of Skagit Chinook recovery report to Skagit River System Cooperative, La Conner, Washington.

Greene, C.M., and E.M. Beamer. 2012. Monitoring population responses to estuary restoration by Skagit River chinook salmon. Internal report by the National Marine Fisheries Service. Seattle, Washington.

Greene, C.M., and T.J. Beechie. 2004. Consequences of potential density-dependent mechanisms on recovery of ocean-type chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 61:590-602.

Morley, S.A., J.D. Toft, and K. Hanson. 2012. Ecological effects of shoreline armoring on intertidal habitats of a Puget Sound urban estuary. Estuaries and Coasts 35(3):774-784. doi:10.1007/s12237-012-9481-3.

Reum, J.C., T.E. Essington, C. Greene, C.A. Rice, and K.L. Fresh. 2011. Multiscale influence of climate on estuarine populations of forage fish: the role of coastal upwelling, freshwater flow, and temperature. Marine Ecology Progress Series 425:203-215.

Rice, C.A., W.G. Hood, L.M. Tear, C.A. Simenstad, G.D. Williams, L.L. Johnson, B.E. Feist, and P. Roni. 2005. Monitoring rehabilitation in temperate North American estuaries. Pages 167-207 in P. Roni, editor. Methods for monitoring stream and watershed restoration. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland.

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Riparian restoration effectiveness

Beechie, T.J., G. Pess, P. Kennard, R.E. Bilby, and S. Bolton. 2000. Modeling recovery rates and pathways for woody debris recruitment in northwestern Washington streams. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 20:436-452.

Hall, J., M.M. Pollock, and S. Hoh. 2011. Methods for successful establishment of black cottonwood and willow along an incised stream in semiarid eastern Oregon, USA. Ecological Restoration 29(3):261-269.

Kiffney, P., and J. Richardson. 2010. Organic matter inputs into headwater streams of southwestern British Columbia as a function of riparian reserves and time since logging. Forest Ecology and Management 260:1931-1942.

Kiffney, P.M., J.S. Richardson, and J.P. Bull. 2003. Responses of periphyton and insect consumers to experimental manipulation of riparian buffer width along headwater streams. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 40:1060-1076.

Kiffney, P.M., J.S. Richardson, and J.P. Bull. 2004. Establishing light as a causal mechanism structuring stream communities in response to experimental manipulation of riparian buffer width. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 23:542-555.

Pollock, M.M., and T.J. Beechie. 2010. Response: Stream temperature relationships to forest harvest in western Washington. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 46:843-847.

Pollock, M.M., T.J. Beechie, and H. Imaki. 2012. Using reference conditions in ecosystem restoration: an example for riparian conifer forests in the Pacific Northwest. Ecosphere 3:1-23.

Pollock, M., T.J. Beechie, and M. Liermann. 2009. Stream Temperature Relationships to Forest Harvest in Western Washington. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 45:141-156.

Welty, J.T., T.J. Beechie, K. Sullivan, D.M. Hyink, R.E. Bilby, C. Andrus, and G. Pess. 2002. Riparian Aquatic Interaction Simulator (RAIS): a model of riparian forest dynamics for the generation of large woody debris and shade. Forest Ecology and Management 162:299-318.

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Beaver ecology and habitat restoration

Beechie, T.J., M.M. Pollock, and S. Baker. 2008. Channel incision, evolution and potential recovery in the Walla Walla and Tucannon River basins, northwestern USA. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 33:784-800.

Pollock, M.M., T.J. Beechie, and C.E. Jordan. 2007. Geomorphic changes upstream of beaver dams in Bridge Creek, in incised stream channel in the interior Columbia River basin, eastern Oregon. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 32:1174-1185.

Pollock, M.M., M. Heim and D. Werner. 2003. Hydrologic and geomorphic effects of beaver dams and their influence on fishes. Pages 213-233 in S. V. Gregory, K. L. Boyer and A. M. Gurnell, editors. The ecology and management of wood in world rivers - proceedings of the international conference on wood in world rivers - Volume 37. American Fisheries Society, Corvallis, Oregon.

Pollock, M.M., J.M. Wheaton, N. Bouwes, C. Volk, N. Weber, and C.E. Jordan. 2012. Working with beaver to restore salmon habitat in the Bridge Creek intensively monitored watershed: Design rationale and hypotheses. U.S. Dept. of Commerce, NOAA Tech. Memo., NMFS-NWFSC-120, 47 p.

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