Northwest Fisheries Science Center

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Glossary of Restoration Terms
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Dr. George Pess
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Restoration Planning

Developing and implementing effective and comprehensive watershed restoration and salmon recovery plans requires following several key steps. This includes detailed assessments of habitats and watershed processes, identification of key habitat impairments, identification of limiting factors and restoration opportunities, choosing suitable restoration techniques, prioritizing restoration actions, designing restoration projects, monitoring restoration effectiveness, and determining the amount of restoration needed to achieve biological objectives. To assist with these steps and provide guidance on restoration planning, we have developed the following science and tools:

Our research products address five major topic areas:

Research Products

Restoration planning

Beechie, T.J. 2003. An assessment approach for habitat recovery planning. Pages 5-17 in T. J. Beechie, E. A. Steel, P. Roni, and E. Quimby, editors. Ecosystem recovery planning for listed salmon: an integrated assessment approach for salmon habitat. U.S. Dept. Commerce, NOAA Technical Memorandum, NMFS-NWFSC-58, 183 p.

Beechie, T., and S. Bolton. 1999. An approach to restoring salmonid habitat-forming processes in Pacific Northwest watersheds. Fisheries 24(4):6-15.

Beechie, T.J., G.R. Pess, E.M. Beamer, G. Lucchetti, and R.E. Bilby. 2002. Role of watershed assessments in recovery planning for salmon. Pages 194-225 in D. R. Montgomery, S. Bolton and D. B. Booth, editors. Restoration of Puget Sound rivers. University of Washington Press, Seattle.

Beechie, T.J., G.R. Pess, M.M. Pollock, M.H. Ruckelshaus, and P. Roni. 2009. Restoring rivers in the 21st century: science challenges in a management context. Pages 695-716 in R. J. Beamish and B. J. Rothschild, editors. The future of fisheries science in North America. Springer, Heidelberg, Netherlands.

Beechie, T.J., P. Roni, E.A. Steel, E. Quimby. editors. 2003. Ecosystem recovery planning for listed salmon: An integrated assessment approach for salmon habitat. U.S. Dept. of Commerce, NOAA Tech. Memo., NMFS-NWFSC-58, 183 p.

Beechie, T.J., D.A. Sear, J.D. Olden, G.R. Pess, J.M. Buffington, H. Moir, P. Roni, and M.M. Pollock. 2010. Process-based principles for restoring river systems. BioScience 60:209-222.

Good, T.P., T.J. Beechie, P. McElhany, M.M. McClure, and M.H. Ruckelshaus. 2007. Recovery planning for Endangered Species Act-listed Pacific salmon: using science to inform goals and strategies. Fisheries 32:426-440. Greene, C.M. and G.R. Pess. 2009. Multi-species modeling for salmon: alternatives, challenges, and opportunities. American Fisheries Society Symposium 71:1-26.

Roni, P., and T. Beechie. 2013. Stream and watershed restoration: a guide to restoring riverine processes and habitats. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, United Kingdom.

Sanderson, B.L., E.A. Steel, T.J. Beechie, G.R. Pess, M.B. Sheer, and C.A. Campbell. 2003. Analyses for Phase I recovery planning: setting recovery goals. Pages 18-39 in T. J. Beechie, E. A. Steel, P. Roni, and E. Quimby, editors.

Ecosystem recovery planning for listed salmon: an integrated assessment approach for salmon habitat. U.S. Dept. Commerce, NOAA Technical Memorandum, NMFS-NWFSC-58, 183 p.

Steel, E.A., T.J. Beechie, M.H. Ruckelshaus, A.H. Fullerton, P. McElhany, and P. Roni. 2009. Mind the gap: uncertainty and model communication between managers and scientists. American Fisheries Society Symposium 71:357-372.

Steel, E.A., M. Liermann, P. McElhany, N.L. Scholz, and A. Cullen. 2003. Managing uncertainty in habitat recovery planning. Pages 74-89 in T.J. Beechie, P. Roni, E.A. Steel and E. Quimby, editors. Ecosystem recovery planning for listed salmon: An integrated assessment approach for salmon habitat. U.S. Dept. of Commerce, NOAA Tech. Memo., NMFS-NWFSC-58, 183 p.

Abbe, T.B., G.R. Pess, D.R. Montgomery, and K. Fetherston. 2002. Integrating engineered log jam technology into reach-scale river restoration. Pages 443-482 in D. R. Montgomery, S. Bolton and D. B. Booth, editors. Restoration of Puget Sound rivers. University of Washington Press, Seattle.

Skidmore, P., T. Beechie, G. Pess, J. Castro, B. Cluer, C. Thorne, C. Shea, and R. Chen. 2013. Chapter 7: Developing, designing, and implementing restoration projects. Pages 215-253 in P. Roni and T. Beechie, editors. Stream and watershed restoration: a guide to restoring riverine processes and habitats. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, United Kingdom.

Skidmore, P., C. Thorne, B. Cluer, G.R. Pess, J. Castro, T.J. Beechie, and C.C. Shea. 2011. Science base and tools for evaluating stream engineering, management, and restoration proposals. U.S. Dept. of Commerce, NOAA Tech. Memo., NMFS-NWFSC-112, 255 p.

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Assessments and problem identification

Bartz, K.K., K.M. Lagueux, M.D. Scheuerell, T.J. Beechie, A. D. Haas, and M.H. Ruckelshaus. 2006. Translating restoration scenarios into habitat conditions: an initial step in evaluating recovery strategies for Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 63:1578-1595.

Beechie, T., E. Beamer, and L. Wasserman. 1994. Estimating coho salmon rearing habitat and smolt production losses in a large river basin, and implications for restoration. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 14:797-811.

Beechie, T.J., C.M. Greene, L. Holsinger, and E.M. Beamer. 2006. Incorporating parameter uncertainties into evaluation of spawning habitat limitations on salmon populations. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 63(6):1242-1250.

Beechie, T.J., G.R. Pess, and H. Imaki. 2012. Estimated changes to Chinook salmon and steelhead habitat carrying capacity from rehabilitation actions for the Trinity River, North Fork Trinity to Lewiston Dam. Contract Report to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Northwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, Washington, 39p.

Beechie, T., G. Pess, S. Morley, L. Butler, P. Downs, A. Maltby, P. Skidmore, S. Clayton, C. Muhlfeld, and K. Hanson. 2013. Chapter 3: Watershed assessments and identification of restoration needs. Pages 50-113 in P. Roni and T. Beechie, editors. Stream and watershed restoration: a guide to restoring riverine processes and habitats. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, United Kingdom.

Beechie, T., P. Roni, and G. Pess. 2013. Chapter 9: Synthesis: developing comprehensive restoration programs. Pages 280-289 in P. Roni and T. Beechie, editors. Stream and watershed restoration: a guide to restoring riverine processes and habitats. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, United Kingdom.

Beechie, T.J., P. Roni, E.A. Steel, and E. Quimby, editors. 2003. Ecosystem recovery planning for listed salmon: an integrated assessment approach for salmon habitat. U.S. Dept. of Commerce, NOAA Tech. Memo., NMFS-NWFSC-58, 183 p.

Beechie, T.J., D.A. Sear, J.D. Olden, G.R. Pess, J.M. Buffington, H. Moir, P. Roni, and M.M. Pollock. 2010. Process-based principles for restoring river systems. BioScience 60:209-222.

Greene, C.M., and T.J. Beechie. 2004. Consequences of potential density-dependent mechanisms on recovery of ocean-type chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 61:590-602.

Hyatt, T.L., T.Z. Waldo, and T.J. Beechie. 2004. A watershed scale assessment of riparian forests, with implications for restoration. Restoration Ecology 12:175-183.

Liermann, M.C., R. Sharma, and C.K. Parken. 2010. Using accessible watershed size to predict management parameters for Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, populations with little or no spawner-recruit data: a Bayesian hierarchical modelling approach. Fisheries Management and Ecology 17:40-51. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2400.2009.00719.x.

Lunetta, R.S., B.L. Cosentino, D.R. Montgomery, E.M. Beamer, and T.J. Beechie. 1997. GIS-based evaluation of salmon habitat in the Pacific Northwest. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 63(10):1219-1229.

Naiman, R.J., D.G. Lonzarich, T.J. Beechie, and S.C. Ralph. 1992. General principles of classification and the assessment of conservation potential in rivers. Pages 93-124 in P. J. Boon, P. Calow and G. E. Petts, editors. River conservation and management. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Pess, G.R., T.J. Beechie, J.E. Williams, D.R. Whitall, J.I. Lange, and J.R. Klochak. 2003. Chapter 8 - Watershed assessment techniques and the success of aquatic restoration activities. Pages 185-201 in R. C. Wissmar and P. A. Bisson, editors. Strategies for restoring river ecosystems: sources of variability and uncertainty in natural and managed systems. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland.

Roni, P., G.R. Pess, T.J. Beechie, and S.A. Morley. 2011. Estimating salmon and steelhead response to watershed restoration: How much restoration is enough? North American Journal of Fisheries Management 30:1469-1484. Roni, P., and T. Beechie. 2013. Chapter 1: Introduction to restoration: Key steps for designing effective restoration programs and projects. Pages 1-10 in P. Roni and T. Beechie, editors. Stream and watershed restoration: a guide to restoring riverine processes and habitats. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, United Kingdom.

Steel, E.A., B.E. Feist, D. Jenson, G.R. Pess, M.B. Sheer, J. Brauner, and R.E. Bilby. 2004. Landscape models to understand steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) distribution and help prioritize barrier removals in the Willamette Basin, OR, U.S.A. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 61:999-1011.

Steel, E.A., L. Johnston, B.E. Feist, G.R. Pess, R.E. Bilby, D. Jensen, T.J. Beechie, and J.M. Myers. 2003. Pacific salmon recovery planning and the Salmonid Watershed Analysis Model (SWAM): a broad-scale tool for assisting in the development of habitat recovery plans. Endangered Species Update 20(1):3-15.

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Restoration for a changing climate

Beechie, T., H. Imaki, J. Greene, A. Wade, H. Wu, G. Pess, P. Roni, J. Kimball, J. Stanford, P. Kiffney, and N. Mantua. 2013. Restoring salmon habitat for a changing climate. River Research and Applications 29(8): 939-960. doi: 10.1002/rra.2590.

Busch, D.S., C.M. Greene, and T.P. Good. 2013. Estimating impacts of tidal power and climate change on threatened and endangered marine species and their food web. Conservation Biology 27(6):1190-1200.

Reidy-Liermann, C.A., J.D. Olden, T.J. Beechie, M.J. Kennard, P.B. Skidmore, C.P. Konrad, and H. Imaki. 2012. Hydrogeomorphic classification of Washington state rivers to support emerging environmental flow management strategies. River Research and Applications 28:1340-1358. doi:10.1002/rra.1541.

Wade, A., T.J. Beechie, E. Fleishman, H. Wu, N.J. Mantua, J.S. Kimball, D.M. Stoms, and J.A. Stanford. 2013. Steelhead vulnerability to climate change in the Pacific Northwest. Journal of Applied Ecology 50(5):1093-1104. doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.12137.

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